Other Governance Models for
|•||Municipal utility reporting to city council (e.g., Austin, Texas; Colorado Springs, Colorado).|
|•||Independent city agency (e.g., Jacksonville, Florida; Knoxville, Tennessee).|
|•||City-owned corporation (e.g., Toronto, Ontario; Safford, Arizona).|
|•||Municipal Utility District (e.g., Sacramento Municipal Utility District).|
|•||Joint Powers Agency (e.g., Southern California Public Power Authority).|
A number of cities simplify governance by having the municipal utility report directly to the city council. The Colorado Springs City Charter, for example, designates the city council as the board of directors for the utility. The utility executive director then reports directly to the council. Austin, Texas, as well as a number of California cities— including Burbank, Glendale, and Pasadena—have similar governance structures but include council-appointed citizen advisory commissions.
In 1998 Colorado Springs also adopted a new governance framework “suited to today's business reality in which flexibility, quick responsiveness, and clear long-term direction are essential to success.” The framework, largely developed by consultant John Carver, 26 seeks to separate the policy functions of the board from the operational re-