The Origins and Evolution of Family Planning Programs in Developing Countries

By Judith R. Seltzer | Go to book overview

Chapter Two
ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF
FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS

This chapter presents the reasons that family planning programs received growing support internationally beginning in the 1960s; how interest on the part of developing countries governments grew; some of the key characteristics of family planning programs and how these evolved over time; and finally, how family planning programs have been funded—including the level of support from international donors and funding organizations. It provides an historical overview of family planning programs so that the controversies, criticisms, and research related to the rationale for programs, which follow in Chapters Three through Five, can be better understood.

Three U.S.organizations, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations and the Population Council, served as catalysts in bringing together experts and government leaders from around the world at various international meetings in the 1950s and 1960s to discuss the implications of rapid population growth and high fertility, exchange experiences with family planning program practitioners, and develop a consensus about what was needed for the future (Harkavy, 1995).1

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1
Two international conferences are examples of these early consensus-building efforts. The International Conference on Family Planning Programs, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1965, included participants from 36 countries with representatives from government health ministries and representatives from private family planning organizations, bilateral assistance agencies, international organizations, and private foundations. The First Pan-American Assembly on Population, held in Cali, Colombia, also in 1965, had 80 participants from many countries and called for responsible parenthood by “encouraging couples to have the number of children consistent with their own ideals and compatible with the possibilities available to them for the education and care to which they are entitled” (Berelson et al., 1966, pp. 255–256).

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The Origins and Evolution of Family Planning Programs in Developing Countries
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables ix
  • Summary xi
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • Acronyms xxiii
  • Chapter One - Introduction 1
  • Chapter Two - Origins and Evolution of Family Planning Programs 9
  • Chapter Three - Demographic Rationale 45
  • Chapter Four - Health Rationale 73
  • Chapter Five - Other Human Rights Concerns 109
  • Chapter Six - Conclusions, Lessons Learned, and Policy Implications 133
  • Bibliography 143
  • Index 175
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