Securing the U.S. Defense Information Infrastructure: A Proposed Approach

By Robert H. Anderson; Phillip M. Feldman Scott et al. | Go to book overview

Appendix E
ON DECEPTION

Though fraud in other activities may be detestable, in the manage/ ment of war it is laudable and glorious, and he who overcomes the enemy by fraud is as much to be praised as he who does so by force.

—Machiavelli, The Art of War

We present in this appendix a brief survey of some of the relevant concepts and terminology regarding the practice of battlefield de/ ception, and posit its possible application to defensive information operations. We strongly believe that well-crafted deception can play a critical role as a protective measure; it is one of the 13 categories of security techniques on which we focused in Chapters Four and Five. Moreover, with few exceptions (e.g., Cohen & Associates' Deception ToolKit), there currently seem to be inadequate attention and re/ sources devoted to this topic within the “information survivability” and computer security R&D communities. As aptly put by John Woodward of MITRE (1997),

It is interesting to note that the military has a long history of em/ ploying deception in its warfighting, but has not yet embraced de/ ception in its information systems, though these systems are touted as the battleground of the future.

Well-applied deceptions have aided combatants in both offense and defense for the length of recorded history and the breadth of conflict, from insurgency to invasion. In this discussion, we first provide gen/ eral information about deception, then relate those concepts to in/ formation infrastructure security.

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