DATA ANALYSIS: SUMMARY OF REPRESENTATION OF
WOMEN IN THE SERVICES
This chapter compares the four services in terms of representation of women overall and across specific occupations and units. The tables in this chapter summarize the larger and more comprehensive tables in the companion volume (Beckett and Chien, 2002).
This report addresses gender representation in military occupations but does not attempt to determine the correct level of representation. Absent high-level guidance from Congress, policymakers, or the military services, it is unclear what the integration target should be. Should the occupations open to women all be integrated to the same extent? This hardly seems like a logical approach. There are occupations with assignment restrictions for women, and there are occupations, such as nursing, that have traditionally included relatively high numbers of women. Thus, absent any policy or legal guidance about integration targets, this work compares the level of representation to that of the appropriate service and notes where differences in representation are statistically significant, without necessarily meaning to imply that such differences have policy significance.
Representation levels differ among occupations for multiple reasons. A primary factor is time elapsed; it does require a full career cycle to completely integrate an occupation. Nonetheless, these data indicate a range of integration progress. Determining the specific reasons for the level of gender representation in any particular occupation requires additional qualitative analysis, such as that in Chapter