The Department of Defense (DoD) faces a difficult hazardous waste cleanup challenge, with thousands of sites at active and closing installations and formerly used defense sites (FUDSs). In fiscal year 1994 (FY94), approximately $2.4 billion was spent on cleanup activities through the Defense Environmental Restoration Account (DERA) and the Base Realignment and Closure Law (BRAC); in FY96, approximately $2.1 billion will be spent, slightly less than half of the total DoD environmental security budget. Efforts to increase the efficiency of cleanup activities, either by reducing costs or accelerating the process through simplification and streamlining, could have a substantial effect on DoD's ability to meet its cleanup obligations within an increasingly constrained budget environment.
Corporate environmental management practices have become more proactive and innovative in recent years. The change is in response to the increasing costs of environmental management and the need to develop and execute more cost-effective environmental management strategies. The paradigm shift is from a corrective action perspective to one of prevention and includes self-auditing practices and the integration of environmental considerations into core business processes. Discussions in the literature regarding this “new” environmental management paradigm usually refer to compliance, pollution prevention, and conservation activities and relate to current and future business operations. Interestingly, there is almost no