• Alternative paths to a sustainable future
• Choosing technology to fit
• Structuring the social control process
Sustainable development is likely to require more than just technical fixes, but there is no one blueprint for a sustainable future. Instead there is a range of social and organisational as well as purely technological choices. This chapter argues that the process of choice must involve a process of negotiation over the social and environmental ends, as well as the technological means.
The general conclusion that has been reached in the analysis in this book so far has been well expressed by Australian environmentalist Sharon Beder:
So long as sustainable development is restricted to minimal low-cost adjustments that do not require value changes, institutional changes or any sort of radical cultural adjustment, the environment will continue to be degraded.
We have looked at a variety of technical fixes and at some more radical technological developments. We have also discussed the view that there must also be significant social changes, or at least lifestyle changes. Patterns of consumption may have to change with at the very least more emphasis on conservation, recycling and less emphasis on consumerism. In the view of some greens more dramatic changes might also be necessary—for example, social, economic and technological