Acidic rain produced as a result of the release into the atmosphere of acidic gases such as sulphur dioxide, generated by the combustion of fossil fuel in power stations and cars.
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The energy actually consumed at the point of use.
The possible increase in average global temperatures as a result of an enhanced ‘greenhouse effect’ due to the release of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere: global warming is one element in the resultant process of ‘climate change’.
The ‘long waves’ (i.e. cyclic patterns) in global economic activity identified by Kondratiev, and interpreted by some subsequent economists as being due to regular bursts of technological innovation.
The process of splitting the nucleus of certain atoms (e.g. uranium) with the resultant release of heat and radiation, as in atomic bombs or nuclear reactors.
The process of fusing together certain light elements (e.g. hydrogen) to yield heat and radiation, as in the H-bomb and the yet to be fully developed fusion reactor.
The energy in the basic fuels or energy sources used, e.g. the energy in the fuel fed into conventional power stations.