Exporting Africa: Technology, Trade, and Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa

By Samuel M. Wangwe | Go to book overview

5

Main findings of the study

A synthesis

POSITION OF EXPORTING FIRMS IN THE WORLD MARKET

Type of product

The position of firms in the market is influenced by the type of product they produce. Many firms’ exports are primarily common products differentiated largely by the use of brand names. Except for the subsidiaries of multinational enterprises, very few firms design and develop their own products. Most products are imitations of foreign products, usually products which were being imported and are now manufactured, following the logic of import substitution. Competition in the product market is largely based on price and quality.


Types of target markets

The exporting firms have mainly targeted regional markets, with smaller volumes being exported to international markets. Firms which target international markets are mainly resource-based manufacturers, deriving their initial comparative advantage from access to natural resources. This observation in the case studies corroborates earlier case studies in which it was noted that manufactured exports have tended to be dominated by processed goods destined for the markets outside Africa (Riddell, 1990, p. 35). If major primary processed exports are excluded then the much smaller remainder is mostly destined for neighbouring markets.

While some exporters started as export-oriented enterprises (EOEs), targeting export markets right from their inception, others started as import substitution enterprises (ISEs), targeting the

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Exporting Africa: Technology, Trade, and Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Acknowledgements xii
  • Part I - Exporting Africa: an Analysis 1
  • 1 - Introduction 3
  • 2 - Trade Theory 16
  • 3 - Some Conceptual Issues and Methodology of the Study 35
  • 4 - The Changing World Economy 52
  • 5 - Main Findings of the Study 82
  • 6 - Conclusions and Policy Implications 117
  • Notes to Part I 122
  • Bibliography 131
  • Part II - Country Studies 141
  • 7 - Zimbabwe 143
  • 8 - Tanzania 199
  • Notes 243
  • 9 - Nigeria 246
  • Notes 295
  • 10 - Kenya 296
  • 11 - The Ivory Coast 344
  • 12 - Mauritius 383
  • Appendix 407
  • Index 413
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