Exporting Africa: Technology, Trade, and Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa

By Samuel M. Wangwe | Go to book overview

12

Mauritius

Prof. R. Lamusse

BACKGROUND

Phases of industrialization

The industrialization of Mauritius has gone through three distinct stages: the import substitution (IS) phase which began with the creation of Development Certificate enterprises in 1964; a mixed phase following the passing of the Export Processing Zones (EPZ) Act in 1970, characterized by a combination of IS and export-oriented (EO) strategies; and a third phase in which industrialization strategy and policy became almost exclusively oriented towards exports, during which a number of measures were taken to liberalize trade and prices and reduce exchange control restrictions. Yet a number of features of the earlier IS period remain, especially in the form of high import tariffs on a large number of commodities.


Import substitution

Thirty years ago, Mauritius was in many ways a typical monocrop plantation economy, virtually entirely dependent on sugar, which, with its by-products, accounted for some 98 per cent of total exports. There was, however, one way in which the Mauritian economy differed from many other plantation economies: the sugar industry was predominantly owned and controlled by local interests, rather than by foreign companies. This had led to the emergence of an indigenous business class initially consisting of the planters and their affiliates in commerce, banking, garages and workshops. The development of the sugar industry thus gave rise to a network of local supportive activities and a supply of local entrepreneurial talent. Much of the surplus arising from sugar was at that time exported

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Exporting Africa: Technology, Trade, and Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Acknowledgements xii
  • Part I - Exporting Africa: an Analysis 1
  • 1 - Introduction 3
  • 2 - Trade Theory 16
  • 3 - Some Conceptual Issues and Methodology of the Study 35
  • 4 - The Changing World Economy 52
  • 5 - Main Findings of the Study 82
  • 6 - Conclusions and Policy Implications 117
  • Notes to Part I 122
  • Bibliography 131
  • Part II - Country Studies 141
  • 7 - Zimbabwe 143
  • 8 - Tanzania 199
  • Notes 243
  • 9 - Nigeria 246
  • Notes 295
  • 10 - Kenya 296
  • 11 - The Ivory Coast 344
  • 12 - Mauritius 383
  • Appendix 407
  • Index 413
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