Environment and History: The Taming of Nature in the USA and South Africa

By William Beinart; Peter Coates | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
The original hunter-gatherer communities established for thousands of years in southern Africa and partly displaced by African expansion.
2
We use the term ‘African’ to denote the indigenous peoples of the region who lived in established political systems when encountered by whites. In North America, the term ‘Red Indian’ has been emphatically abandoned and replaced by the more sensitive label ‘Native American’ (invariably capitalized to avoid confusion with native-born whites) but the appellation ‘American Indian’ remains respectable in academic discourse if not in activist circles. In South Africa, however, the term ‘native’ was adopted by settlers and became coated with their racial ideas. It has long been rejected by indigenous people in favour of ‘African’ or ‘black’.
3
Proof that now treeless desert was once forested comes from pine needles preserved in the solidified urine of the pack rat taken from their fossilized nests.
4
Exploitation, a central Marxist concept with reference to the abuse of human labour, is a recurring theme in environmental history. It usually features as a synonym for abuse of nature but can simply denote use.
5
This book concentrates largely on the political units that became the USA and South Africa, but makes frequent reference to other parts of the North American and southern African regions.
6
Our focus is firmly terrestrial; space constraints cause us to omit coastal waters, their lifeforms, and topics such as marine pollution.

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

Environmental history

a
Anderson, David and Grove, Richard (eds) (1987) Conservation in Africa: People, Policies and Practice , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .

b
Beinart, William (ed. ) (1989) ‘The politics of conservation in Southern Africa’ , Special Issue, Journal of Southern Africa Studies , 15 (2) , 143-392 .
Brockway, Lucile (1979) Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Royal Botanic Garden , New York: Academic Press .

c
Coates, Peter (1994) ‘Chances with wolves: renaturing western history’, Journal of American Studies , 28 (August) , 241-54 .
Cowdrey, Albert (1983) This Land, This South: An Environmental History , Lexington : University Press of Kentucky .
Cronon, William (1983) Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England, New York: Hill & Wang .
Crosby, Alfred (1972) The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 , Westport : Greenwood Press .
—— (1986) Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900 to 1900, New York: Cambridge University Press .

g
Glacken, Clarence (1967) Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century , Berkeley: University of California Press .

-14-

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