3

FOR GOD, KING AND COUNTRY

The Tudor conquest of Ireland was never at any time a simple affair of ‘Ireland versus England’, for Irish society was too complex and too divided to react with one hand or one voice to English policy. Each group’s response was influenced by its political traditions: the loyal Anglo-Irish of the Pale and the towns stressed the ancient liberties and constitutional rights of Ireland; the native Irish transferred their dislike of foreigners to the New English, whom they dubbed ‘foreign wolves’; 1 and the rebellious Anglo-Irish and Gaelic Irish both paraded their Catholicity with varying degrees of conviction and sincerity. The final collapse of Hugh O’Neill’s rebellion, although it ended any ideas of Irish separation from the English crown, did not resolve the problems posed to the Anglo-Irish and Gaelic Irish by the crown’s new attitude to them. On the contrary, Irish anxieties about their future were given a sharper edge by two major developments under the early Stuarts; the arrival in force of new British and Protestant settlers; and the accelerating pace of religious discrimination in the face of what was increasingly regarded as the doubtful loyalty of even the Anglo-Irish. Out of the tension thus generated there evolved a response that has exerted a lasting influence on Irish nationalism and indeed on all aspects of Irish life: the formal identification of the Irish nation with the Roman Catholic people of Ireland.

The Anglo-Irish, unlike the Gaelic Irish, had throughout their history enjoyed the fruits of active participation in the administration of Ireland, or, rather, of those parts of Ireland which could be administered. They had enjoyed positions of trust and influence; and, in general, they had proved themselves willing to assist the Government, as they did in the reformation parliament of 1536, however quick they might be to demonstrate their self-assertiveness should the need arise. But from the late sixteenth century there were ominous signs that the exclusion of an Anglo-Irish influence at governmental level was becoming an axiom of English policy. With the accession of James I, from whom much had been expected by Catholics, the grounds for this exclusion became more overtly religious: the acts of Supremacy and Uniformity were enforced, and fines and forfeitures imposed on non-conforming office holders. The services of Catholics in the administration began to be dispensed with; and a large measure of power,

-68-

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Nationalism in Ireland
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 1
  • Contents 5
  • Preface to the Third Edition 6
  • Preface to the Second Edition 8
  • Preface 9
  • Introduction: Nationalism and Ireland 15
  • 1 - Colony and Nation 25
  • 2 - Intimations of Nationalism in Tudor Ireland 46
  • 3 - For God, King and Country 68
  • Notes 91
  • 4 - From English Colony to Irish Nation: the Protestant Experience 94
  • 5 - The Irish, Properly So Called 123
  • 6 - Patterns of Nationalism, 1842-1870 154
  • Notes 187
  • 7 - The Making of Parnellism and Its Undoing 192
  • 8 - The Battle of Three Civilizations 228
  • 9 - What Home Rule Stood For, 1891-1918 259
  • 10 - Nationalism, Socialism and the Irish Revolution 295
  • 11 - State and Nation in Modern Ireland 339
  • Notes 370
  • Conclusion: Ireland and Nationalism 375
  • Epilogue: History, Politics and Nationalism 391
  • Appendix: the Downing Street Declaration , 15 December 1993 433
  • Maps 438
  • Bibliography 443
  • Supplementary Bibliography 477
  • Index 488
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