Catherine I. Bako and Greville Rumble
Following acceptance of an initial concept ‘paper’ in May 1974, the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI), Kaduna, Nigeria, was established by Federal government decree number 7 of 10 April 1978 in response to the national shortage of trained teachers. This case study examines the developing roles of the NTI and in particular the nature and costs of its distance-learning programme within the context of Nigeria’s educational needs.
The mainstream educational system in Nigeria (that is, excluding craft education) begins normally at the age of six years with six years of primary education leading to the First Leaving Certificate. Pupils who go on to secondary level do a common junior secondary school syllabus (three-year course) before embarking on a further three years in one of three streams: the academic stream (senior secondary school), technical education, or primary-school teacher training. Successful students can then move on to university (embarking on a four-year first degree course), polytechnic (leading to the Ordinary National Diploma, or OND, after two years and Higher National Diploma, or HND, after four years), secondary teacher training (leading to the Nigeria Certificate in Education or NCE), or professional education, leading to various certificates and diplomas (see Figure 7.1).
This structure itself reflects changes to the educational system which existed in the mid-1970s when NTI was founded. These include the phasing out of the Primary Teacher Training Grade III certificate, which was awarded following successful completion of a three-year post-primary course, and the move from a five-year secondary-school cycle to a three-plus-three-year pattern, including the introduction of a common three-year junior secondary school qualification prior to specialisation in senior secondary school, technical education, or teacher training. Previously specialisation occurred following completion of primary education.
So far as teachers’ qualifications are concerned, there have been five basic levels of qualifications.
The standard qualification for primary-school teachers is at present the