Is the condition of the English working people wrong; so wrong that rational working men cannot, will not, and even should not rest quiet under it?
There is no community in England; there is aggregation, but aggregation under circumstances which make it rather a dissociating than a uniting principle…. In cities that condition is aggravated. A density of population implies a severer struggle for existence…. In great cities men are brought together by the desire of gain. They are not in a state of cooperation, but of isolation, as to the making of fortunes; and for all the rest they are careless of neighbours. Christianity teaches us to love our neighbour as ourself; modern society acknowledges no neighbours.
It is misleading to emphasize too much the effects that industrialization had had upon ways of life even by 1851. At that date, agriculture still employed 1·79 million persons and about 25 per cent of adult male workers, though the percentage had been dropping and would continue to do so. Domestic service constituted the second largest source of employment, with about one million workers, and the building trades employed about 0·7 5 million. The cotton industry ranked fourth, employing just over half a million; but there were still fewer coalminers (216,000) than boot and shoemakers (274,000). It is