Women during the Civil War: An Encyclopedia

By Judith E. Harper | Go to book overview

Selected Readings
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. New York: Vintage Books. 1997.
Rable, George. “‘Missing in Action:’ Women of the Confederacy. ” In Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War. Edited by Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber. New York: Oxford University Press. 1992. 134-146.
Ryan, Mary P. Women in Public: Between Banners and Ballots, 1825-1880. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1990.
Solomon, Clara. The Civil War Diary of Clara Solomon: Growing Up in New Orleans, 1861-1862. Edited, with an introduction, by Elliott Ashkenazi. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. 1995.

Gettysburg, Battle of

The Battle of Gettysburg, waged from July 1 to July 3, 1863, in the southern Pennsylvania hamlet of Gettysburg, involved more than 165,000 Union and Confederate troops. By the time the three days of fighting were over, there were over 50,000 casualties, including at least 4,000 Union and 3,000 Confederate dead. This Union victory, coupled with the Union conquest of Vicksburg, Mississippi, on July 4, proved to be the turning point of the Civil War. At Gettysburg, Union Major General George Gordon Meade’s Army of the Potomac repulsed Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia’s recent invasion of the North, placing the Confederate armies on the defensive for the remainder of the war. Historians differ as to the strength of the armies that fought at Gettysburg. The Army of the Potomac is believed to have consisted of 85,000 to 97,000 men; Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia numbered from 70,000 to 75,000.

As was the case with other Civil War engagements, civilians living in the battle zone were swept up in the violence and chaos of the fighting. Even though Gettysburg residents—men, women, and children—were helpless to protect their property from destruction by artillery and cannon fire, they volunteered to assist wounded Union and Confederate soldiers.

Weeks after the stunning Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville (Virginia) in early May 1863, Lee persuaded President Jefferson Davis and other top leaders of the Confederate government and military that the Army of Northern Virginia should undertake an invasion of the North in June 1863. Despite its recent triumphs, the Confederate military was struggling with problems that were overwhelming its fighting force. A lack of supplies—particularly food, clothing, shoes, and horses—was draining the military’s strength. Lee reasoned that a campaign into the fertile farmland of Pennsylvania would feed and strengthen his troops while providing them with desperately needed supplies. Lee also argued that battle victories in the North would convince Britain and France to recognize and assist the Confeder-

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Women during the Civil War: An Encyclopedia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Foreword vii
  • Introduction ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • List of Entries xvii
  • A 1
  • B 29
  • Selected Readings 47
  • C 55
  • Selected Readings 70
  • Selected Readings 83
  • Selected Readings 91
  • D 97
  • Selected Readings 116
  • Selected Readings 121
  • E 125
  • F 143
  • Selected Readings 157
  • G 161
  • Selected Readings 164
  • Selected Readings 174
  • H 183
  • Selected Reading 196
  • I 205
  • J 223
  • Selected Readings 225
  • K 227
  • L 235
  • Selected Readings 247
  • Selected Readings 255
  • M 257
  • N 279
  • P 293
  • Selected Reading 300
  • R 311
  • S 325
  • T 367
  • U 385
  • V 393
  • W 401
  • Selected Readings 403
  • Selected Readings 416
  • Z 425
  • Glossary 429
  • Bibliography 433
  • Index 449
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