Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century

By Nigel West; Heike Bungert et al. | Go to book overview


NOTES
1.
See also the contribution by P. Marquardt-Bigman in this volume.
2.
F. Romero, ‘La Guerra Fredda nella Recente Storiografia Americana. Definizioni e Interpretazioni’, Italia Contemporanea, 200 (December 1995), pp. 397-412; A. Stephanson, The United States’, in D. Reynolds, ed., The Origins of the Cold War in Europe (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994), pp. 23-52. On post-revisionism see J. L. Gaddis’s classic work, The Emerging Postrevisionist Synthesis on the Origins of the Cold War’, Diplomatic History, 7:3 (Summer 1983), pp. 171-90. On the pluralism of US diplomatic historiography, see M. Hunt’s optimistic prognosis, The Long Crisis in U. S. Diplomatic History: Coming to Closure’, Diplomatic History, 16:1 (Winter 1992), pp. 115-40, and the various essays in M. Hogan and T. Paterson, eds., Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (Canibridge; Cambridge University Press, 1991).
3.
See M. Leffler, ‘New Approaches, Old Interpretations, and Prospective Reconfigurations’, Diplomatic History, 19:2 (Spring 1995), pp. 173-96. That post-revisionism could be nothing more than ‘orthodoxy plus archives’ had already been refuted by Prof. Kimball in his comment on J. L. Gaddis, The Emerging Postrevisionist Synthesis’, op. cit.
4.
On the continuity/discontinuity of the Truman administration’s foreign policy, see the differing positions of M. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992), and J. L. Gaddis, Strategies of Containment. A Critical Appraisal of Postwar National Security Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).
5.
M. Del Pero, ‘L’Intelligence Statunitense nel Secondo Dopoguerra’, Passato e Presente, 40 (Gennaio-Aprile 1997), pp.105-20. For a slightly different position, see R. Jeffreys-Jones, The Stirrings of a New Revisionism’, in R. Jeffreys-Jones and A. Lownie, eds., North American Spies. New Revisionist Essays (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991), pp. 1-30.
6.
V. Marchetti and J. Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York: Dell, 1974); P. Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975).
7.
This definition is by Clark Clifford; see L. K. Johnson, America’s Secret Power: The CIA in a Democratic Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989). Johnson emphasizes that the expression ‘covert operations’ is in reality much more complex and elusive. For another definition of covert operations see R. Godson, ed., Intelligence Requirements for the 1980s: Covert Action (Washington, DC: National Strategy Information Center: Transaction Books, 1981).
8.
It is evident that the typological divisions suggested here are based on distinctions much less explicit in reality; the four types of covert operations can often be distinguished in theory only, as they are not mutually exclusive and consequently appear simultaneously (a political covert action often implies an economic one as well, etc. ).

-79-

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