Globalisation, Domestic Politics, and Regionalism: The ASEAN Free Trade Area

By Helen E. S. Nesadurai | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1
ASEAN was formed in 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei joined the grouping in 1984 on its independence from Britain. Vietnam joined in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997, while Cambodia joined the Association in April 1999, bringing ASEAN’s total membership to ten.
2
Intra-ASEAN exports among the six core members in 1990 stood at about 20 per cent, while their exports to the industrial countries totalled 58 per cent of total exports. Calculated from the IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook 1996.
3
Detailed analyses of ASEAN economic cooperation between 1976 and 1990 are found in ASEAN Secretariat (1997a: 1-88); Frost (1990:7-14); Suriyamongkol (1988); Ch’ng (1985) and Tongzon (1998:64).
4
The core or founding members of AFTA are Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. New members of ASEAN acceded to AFTA on joining the Association.
5
The latter include customs initiatives, standards harmonisation and mutual recognition programmes, as well as information sharing arrangements that facilitate the free movement of goods and services within the region.
6
The term ‘open regionalism’ originally meant a form of regionalism that was based on the principles of unilateral liberalisation as well as non-discrimination in tariff preferences between members and outsiders (Drysdale and Garnaut 1993:187-8). Today, the term is used in a broader sense, to describe regionalist projects that aim at enhancing the participation of their members in global economic activities. This is in contrast to the ‘closed’ regionalist projects of the 1960s and 1970s (Gamble and Payne 1996a: 252; Grugel and Hout 1999:10).
7
Although Menon (1998:18) and Tham (1998:32-3) question the wisdom of such a distinction, they offer no explanation on why member governments were prompted to adopt this particular policy for the AIA. Their implicit argument is that policymakers were not acting rationally since the distinction made between ASEAN and foreign investors was redundant and inconsistent with national policies towards FDI.
8
The literature defines ‘economic regionalism’ as a project of states, or their governments, to coordinate economic policies, instruments and arrangements within a given region (Wyatt-Walter 1995:77). It is often differentiated from regionalisation, which is a market-driven process of economic integration within a region driven by corporate actors and individuals (Hurrell 1995:39). Notwithstanding their conceptual and practical interrelationships, this book is primarily concerned with explaining economic regionalism, or the political decisions of governments within a geographically delimited area to cooperate.

-187-

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Globalisation, Domestic Politics, and Regionalism: The ASEAN Free Trade Area
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Acknowledgements x
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction - Ambiguities and Contradictions in AFTA 1
  • 1 - Globalisation and Economic Regionalism 24
  • 2 - The Unfolding of a Regional Economic Cooperation Project: AFTA, 1991-2002 50
  • 3 - Foreign Capital and Open Regionalism 78
  • 4 - Domestic Distributive Concerns Temper the Growth Imperative 99
  • 5 - Re-Negotiating AFTA Commitments 128
  • 6 - Taking Care of Growth and Distribution 151
  • Notes 187
  • References 203
  • Index 218
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