I am indebted to many individuals who aided in the development of this report. Alan Vick, the project leader, provided immense support and input throughout this research effort, as did the other members of the urban warfare project team: David Frelinger, Stephen Hosmer, Joel Kvitky, Benjamin Lambeth, Jefferson Marquis, and John Stillion. Zalmay Khalilzad oversaw the research effort and added many useful insights. LtCol Hank Andrews, Daniel Byman, W. Michael Reisman, Jeremy Shapiro, and Ruth Wedgwood provided excellent ideas and critiques.
Major General Norton Schwartz, Director of Air Force Strategic Planning, sponsored this study, and two members of his staff, LtCol Robert Stephan and Maj Jeff Newell, contributed many useful suggestions. Major Jeffrey Walker and Col M. Schlabs, USAF/JA International and Operations Law Division, provided valuable support and ideas; Maj Walker also offered a number of superb comments on earlier drafts.
Finally, I thank Thomas McNaugher and Mark Shulman for their thoughtful and penetrating reviews of an early draft.