Gender and Text in the Later Middle Ages

By Jane Chance | Go to book overview
by men, but not by women. It could be argued that such an image only "speaks" to women if they are able to deny their own experience of it.
7. Some outstanding studies in this area are: de Paepe, Hadewijch Strofische Gedichten; Schottmann, "Die Natureingang"; Willaert, De poëtica van Hadewijch.
8. See, for example, Stanzaic Poem 29:41-43, in Strofische Gedichten, ed. De Paepe , and Letter 28, in Brieven, ed. Van Mierlo. References to Stanzaic Poems are hereafter abbreviated as SP. Translations in this essay are mine.
9. Murk-Jansen, "Mystical Theology,"122-24.
10. Such an interpretation fails to take account of the fact that minne is also described by Hadewijch as that which compelled the death of Christ ( SP 13); and, as above, the concept of the Trinity (Vision 1, in Visionen, ed. Mommaers).
11. See Bynum, Jesus as Mother.
12. Bynum, Fragmentation and Redemption, 171. Bernard's use of such images should, however, be seen in the context of the imagery of Christ as mother, popular particularly in Cistercian circles (see also Bynum, Jesus as Mother). By referring to himself with the same images as those applied to Christ, Bernard is equating his role as abbot to that of Christ, which, in a Christian monastic context, is scarcely an unambiguous renunciation of power.
13. The title Epistolary Poems (cited in text as EP) refers to the first sixteen Mengeldichten, which Van Mierlo has described as "rijmbrieven." Translations are mine.
14. For example, at one tournament at Neuss in 1241 sixty knights and squires were killed, though this does appear to have been an unusually high figure. Barber and Barker, Tournaments, 54.
15. The biblical foundation for such an image could be the book of Job.
16. Reynaert, "Hadewijch en de Bijbel,"43.
17. Epistolary Poem 3. A full discussion of Hadewijch's identification of herself and her audience with Mary Magdalen as the apostle to the apostles will be given in the introduction to my new edition and translation of Hadewijch's Mengeldichten, currently in preparation.
18. It is interesting to note that the notion of God as debtor to man by virtue of his promises also occurs in Augustine ( Confessions, vol. 5, section 9, p. 103) who was similarly writing at a time of change and uncertainty.

Bibliography
Augustine St. Confessions. Edited By R. S. Pine-Coffin. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1961.
Barber Richard, and Juliet Barker. Tournaments: Jousts, Chivalry and Pageants in the Middle Ages. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1989.
Bynum Caroline Walker. Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion. New York: Zone Books, 1991.
-----. Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

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