Ethics, Machiavellianism, and
Social Values: Implications for
Swee Hoon Ang
National University of Singapore
Jerome D. Williams
The University of Texas at Austin
There have been several discussions on the benefits and challenges of having a standardized ad campaign versus one that is customized to selected markets (cf. de Mooij & Keegan, 1991). Besides cost efficiency, auniformad campaign isespoused particularly forinternationalbrandsas The values of suchbrandsare consistently communicated throughout the world. Incontrast, research ers acknowledge that not all consumersaresimilarin the ir values and preferences. Even when the same adis used, consumers from various cultural backgroundsmayinterpret the ad differently. Hence, the re is a need to develop customized adstosuitthe preferences of the target audience, especially when such amarket isasignificant one. Mueller (1987) showed that, in general, advertising tendsto reflect the prevalent values of theculture in which It exists.
One of the emerging markets that companies are interestedin isthe youth market. Called Generation Y, teenagersaged 12 to 19 forma huge market that isexpected to grow at some 5% annually (“Understanding Generation Y, ” 1998). Another market of interest isthe Asian market, with a population of over 5.3 billion people or almost 56% of the world's population. Although the economiccrisis has slowed the growthinthis region somewhat, its youth market remains a thriving one. In fact, as the crisis has hitthemiddle-income highly leveraged Asians, the youth market has become an alternative viable segment. Asian youthsare not leveraged and generally live with the ir parents. The Refore, although the ir disposable income is