Rebuilding Discouraged Students'
Confidence and Willingness to Learn
Some of your students will achieve less than most of their classmates, even if you meet their individual needs effectively and they progress as rapidly as it is reasonable to expect. You can help protect their confidence as learners by establishing the kind of learning community described in chapter 2 and consistently implementing the curriculum, instruction, and assessment principles put forth in chapters 3 and 4. Even so, these students may need additional motivational support. Also, many of them will bring into your classroom expectancy-related motivational problems that they have developed through prior experiences with failure and its consequences. These problems may continue unless you address them effectively.This chapter considers four types of students with expectancy-related motivational problems:
Certainly, it is unfair to force tortoises to race against hares. Hares will become lazy and fall asleep while tortoises will become discouraged at the impossibility of winning. Both, however, can benefit from a system that helps all participants become better runners.
If the goal is maximum performance from all students, the schools must provide hope to all students that increased effort can result in success.
—Raffini (1988, pp. 13–14)
|1.||students with limited ability who have difficulty keeping up and develop chronically low expectations and numbed acceptance of failure;|
|2.||students whose failure attributions or ability beliefs make them susceptible to learned helplessness in failure situations;|
|3.||students who are obsessed with self-worth protection and thus focus on performance goals but not learning goals; and|