What Institutions Can Do
Although the primary purpose of our book has been to assist instructors in understanding and dealing with academic dishonesty, the issues of academic dishonesty and integrity extend beyond the classroom to the institution as a whole (e.g., Alschuler & Blimling, 1995; Gehring & Pavela, 1994; Kibler, 1993b). Therefore, in this chapter, we outline some of the actions that institutions can take to enhance campus-wide academic integrity. We have organized our discussion in terms of the three components of Kibler's (1993b) framework for analyzing the institutional role in fostering academic integrity: establishing an academic integrity policy, implementing an academic integrity program, and developing an academic integrity ethos.
Because every college and university must develop an academic integrity policy that fits its mission as well as its student body and faculty, we are not going to present a model policy. Rather, we note what we consider to be some of the essential elements of an effective policy. Model policies can be found in various publications (e.g., Kibler et al., 1988; Pavela, 1997a; Risacher & Slonaker, 1996), and the Center for Academic Integrity's (CAI) Web site has a search engine for web pages on integrity policies and honor codes (http://academicintegrity.org/integrity/). Individuals who are not members of CAI may log in and search as guests.
It is a general principle of organizational psychology that people are more likely to adhere to a policy they assist in developing than by policies