The Nineteenth Century [Routledge History of Philosophy, V. 7]

By C. L. Ten | Go to book overview

Glossary
analytic and synthetic—an analytic statement is true in virtue of the meanings of the words in it, e.g. ‘Bachelors are unmarried males’. A synthetic statement is true not in virtue of the meanings of the words used, e.g. ‘Some bachelors are rich’.
a posteriori—based on experience.
a priori—not based on experience.
*cause, efficient—a translation of causa efficient, a term which was used by medieval philosophers. The term goes back to Aristotle, who stated that an ‘efficient’ cause is a source of change or of coming to rest (Physics, II, 3). So, for example, a man who gives advice is an efficient cause, and a father is the efficient cause of his child.
*cause, final—a term that renders the Latin causa finalis. ‘Final’ does not mean here last or ultimate, as when one speaks of a ‘final curtain’. Rather, a final cause is that for the sake of which something is done. The term goes back to Aristotle, who said that a final cause is an end: e.g. health is the final cause of taking a walk (Physics, II, 3).
coherence theory of truth—the view that a true statement is that which coheres, or is most consistent, with the system of accepted statements. deduction—a form of argument in which if the premisses are true then the conclusion must also be true.
definition per genus et differentiam—a form of definition in which a word is defined by locating the thing to which it refers in a class of things (genus) sharing some common features, and then by indicating those features which distinguish the thing from others in that class.
*determinism—a term covering a wide variety of views, which have in common the thesis that every event or every state of affairs belonging to a certain class is determined by certain factors, in the sense that given these factors the event must occur or the state of affairs must hold. In the past philosophers readily accepted the idea that determinism held in the natural world; but many of them were reluctant to believe that it also held in the sphere of human actions. They believed that (whatever might be the case in the natural world) the will was free, in the sense that, whenever a human agent chooses to do something, that agent could always have chosen to do otherwise.
empiricism—the theory that all knowledge is based on experience.

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The Nineteenth Century [Routledge History of Philosophy, V. 7]
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • General Editors' Preface vii
  • Acknowledgements x
  • Chronology xiv
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Early Utilitarians 5
  • Chapter 2 - Whewell's Philosophy of Science and Ethics 32
  • Chapter 3 - J. S. Mill 62
  • Bibliography 96
  • Chapter 4 - J. S. Mill 98
  • Chapter 5 - Sidgwick 122
  • Chapter 6 - Comte and Positivism 148
  • Bibliography 174
  • Chapter 7 - Nietzsche 177
  • Chapter 8 - Dilthey 206
  • Bibliography 235
  • Chapter 9 - Logic and the Philosophy of Mathematics in the Nineteenth Century 242
  • Chapter 10 - Philosophy of Biology in the Nineteenth Century 272
  • Bibliography 296
  • Chapter 11 - The Separation of Psychology from Philosophy 297
  • Chapter 12 - American Pragmatism 357
  • Chapter 13 - American Pragmatism 381
  • Bibliography 405
  • Chapter 14 - Green, Bosanquet and the Philosophy of Coherence 408
  • Bibliography 434
  • Chapter 15 - Bradley 437
  • Bibliography 458
  • Glossary 459
  • Index 461
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