Wilson and His Peacemakers: American Diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919

By Arthur Walworth | Go to book overview

23

Peace for Southeastern Europe:
St. Germain, Trianon, and Neuilly

When the Treaty of Versailles was signed at the end of June, no settlement had been made with Austria-Hungary. The Hapsburg monarchy had undergone a fragmentation that had been blessed by Wilson's wartime propaganda, and during the first half of 1919 some of the fragments showed propensities that threatened to make warfare among them chronic. Each was jealous of its national identity and, despite admonitions from the Peace Conference, quick to use such military force as it could muster to support its claims to territory. Moreover, barriers appeared against the flow of trade that had been maintained within the imperial establishment.

Spokesmen of the several emancipated nationalities argued that it would be unjust to impose on them the same penalties that were to be put upon Austria and Hungary, which as the ruling states in the Dual Monarchy might be expected to bear full shares of responsibility for the consequences of the war. At the same time Austrian officials pleaded that German Austria was only one of several fragments of the Hapsburg estate and should be treated just as the others. Austrians were not invited to negotiate at Paris, however, until the case against them had been well prepared by delegates of the successor states that had been admitted to the peacemaking councils.

The United States in effect affirmed the dissolution of the old empire by recognizing the governments of Poland, Czechosolvakia, and Yugoslavia. The American delegates wished to give to each of these successor states a population and an economy that would minimize its inclination to go to war, and a frontier that would make it difficult for its neighbors to make war upon it. Wilson could be expected to encourage the forming of a "regional understanding" under the sanction of the League of Nations. In the critical month of April, however, he did not pursue the recommendation of Smuts for military control of the new states and a convening of their delegates in a conference that might bring economic interchanges of mutual benefit. Actually, the successor states themselves, whose peoples exulted in their emancipation from imperial restraints, had shown little interest in reaching a general understanding. The Americans were disappointed. Hoover warned that unless a customs union was maintained among Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, the great powers might find that instead of collecting something by way of reparation they would have to assume the expenses of relief for starving people. 1.

On February 22, House and Lansing had suggested that the Peace Conference "proceed without delay to the consideration of preliminary peace terms with Aus‐

____________________
1.
Memorandum from Hoover and N. H. Davis for the president, June 14, 1919, Davis papers, box 11. Seymour, Letters from the Paris Peace Conference, p. 148.

-443-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Wilson and His Peacemakers: American Diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 618

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.