The Birth of the Irish Free State, 1921-1923

By Joseph M. Curran | Go to book overview

Chapter 18

Ending the Civil War:
December 1922-May 1923

The Irish people took the Free State's inauguration quietly. When the Dail assembled on December 6, there were only a few spectators outside Leinster House. 1 The popular mood seemed much the same as when the Treaty was signed—a mixture of relief, resignation, and satisfaction. Most Irishmen and -women wanted the Free State, but they were not inclined to celebrate a triumph so overshadowed by tragedy.

The Speaker opened the first meeting of the Free State Parliament by administering the oath to the deputies. Immediately afterward, Tom Johnson declared the oath would not restrict the Labor Party if and when the people chose to denounce the Treaty or amend the Constitution. 2 When Johnson had finished speaking, Cosgrave was elected president of the Executive Council without opposition. Again keeping the Finance Ministry for himself, Cosgrave nominated an Executive Council composed of O'Higgins as vice-president, Mulcahy, MacNeill, Blythe, McGrath, and Fitzgerald, with each minister retaining the office he had held in the Provisional Government. After approving these nominations, the Dail agreed to establish a committee which would appoint external ministers for Agriculture, Fisheries, and the Post Office. 3

At the close of the first day's session, President Cosgrave read his list of thirty Senate nominations. Among his selections were Dr. Oliver St. John Gogarty, an eminent surgeon as well as a close friend of Griffith and Collins; John Bagwell, a distinguished historian; Andrew Jameson, head of a large Dublin distillery; Sir Bryan Mahon, a retired British general; Sir Horace Plunkett, founder of the Irish Cooperative movement and the Irish Dominion League; and William Butler Yeats. The president's choices were elected automatically; half would serve a full twelve-year term, and half six years. The remaining thirty senators, half of whom would serve nine years and half three, were elected by the Dail on December 7. Among those chosen were Alice Stopford Green, another well-known historian; Colonel Maurice Moore, brother of the novelist and a former commander of the famed Connaught Rangers; and James Douglas, of the Constitution Committee. The fact that a sizable number of senators were Protestants and former Unionists demonstrated the government's desire to reconcile the old ascendancy to the new order. 4

When the Senate met on December 11, Lord Glenavy, a prominent

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Birth of the Irish Free State, 1921-1923
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 356

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.