The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Reading:
Andrei Gromyko, Memoirs (1989).
gross domestic product (GDP). The total value of a nation’s output of goods and services over one year, but confined to domestically located factor endowments. Thus, GDP is GNP minus net factor incomes (profits and wages) repatriated from abroad. See also NNP; remittances; System of National Accounts.
gross national product (GNP). The total value of a nation’s output of goods and services over one year, measured not territorially as with GDP, but including all value produced by the factor endowments of that country, wherever they may be located. It is often used as an indicator of growth and development. It may be calculated in two ways: (1) factor cost: all earnings on production factors such as wages, interest, profits, and remittances; and (2) market cost: where expenditures are added, such as consumption, investment, and public spending. When divided by the total population, the figure arrived at is cited as the per capita GNP. Comparative GNP figures are first converted to a single hard currency value, usually in U.S. dollars, and adjusted for inflation. Note: This concept has been criticized for excluding valuable but nonmonetary services, such as unpaid work in the home, while including without qualification production that may have hidden costs, such as environmental degradation. Also, there can be considerable analytic distortion if one uses a figure that measures economic activity as an indicator of economic welfare. See also Net National Product; SNA.
Grotian. Theories about international relations drawn from the writings of Hugo Grotius. See also classical school.
Grotius, Hugo, né Huig van Groot (1583–1645). Dutch jurist, humanist, and diplomat in the Swedish service, 1635–1645, at the French court. His great works, “Mare Liberum” (Freedom of the Seas, 1609) and “De jura belli et pacis” (On the Law of War and Peace, 1625), the latter written while in political exile in Paris, are widely regarded as landmarks in the development of international law as well as the just war tradition. His writings drew deeply from the well of natural law theory, the prior legal work of Gentili, the new idea of social contract (still germinating in his day, to flower fully during the Enlightenment), and the awful experience of religious warfare that ushered in the climactic Thirty Years’ War, which dominated his mature lifetime. He

devised from these sources general rational principles, which he then put forward as the basis for a system of law between and among nations. Of these, three key ideas have been bequeathed to modern legal and political discourse: (1) states ought not to seek to impose their ideologies upon each other—in his day and corner of the world, Catholicism and Protestantism—and should instead abstain from interference in each others’ internal affairs, though Grotius maintained a theoretical and highly circumscribed exception for armedhumanitarian intervention; (2) a “law of nature” exists separate from and higher than human affairs, but it is knowable by human intellect and reason, and general elaboration and acceptance of this natural law by government leaders is the only path to escape from anarchy; (3) an “assembly of the nations” ought to be created to enforce these laws drawn from nature by reason. He profoundly influenced thinkers as diverse as Hobbes, Locke, and Kant, all subsequent writers on the law of nations and, in a real sense, all thinking on the character of international relations as essentially that of a society of states bound by the practical requirements of social existence, rather than by allegiance to any superior moral or political authority. See also classical school;freedom of the seas;international society; Niccolò de Bernardo Machiavelli; Emerich de Vattel; Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban.


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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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