The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Readings:
Alex Danchev and Dan Keohane, eds., International Perspectives on the Gulf Conflict, 1990–91 (1994); Majid Khadduri and Edmund Ghareeb, War in the Gulf, 1990–91 (1997).
gunboat diplomacy. Sending elements of one’s navy to a hostile coast or port to display resolve and military capabilities in order to compel or deter some action by a minor power. See also coercive diplomacy;incursion; show theflag.
gunpowder revolution/empires. Gunpowder was first fabricated by the Chinese, probably in the eleventh century C.E. For centuries they used it in ceremony, celebration, and in a limited way also in warfare. Travelers brought it out of China to India, the Middle East, and Europe during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In Europe it was united with advances in metallurgy and ballistic science to form new projectile weapons of steadily increasing range, accuracy, and force. Armed with artillery and muskets, over time kings and emperors were able to batter down feudal fortifications, bring internal enemies to heel, and enlarge their effective domains. Gunpowder weapons gave all older, settled societies a greater ability to fend off invasion by nomads still organized mainly to make war, and thus contributed to the victory of Russians, Persians, and Ottoman Turks—descendants all, of earlier invading armies—over the age-old scourge of invasion by Inner Asian warrior peoples. These settled, civilized areas were then able to expand. As a result, several great “gunpowder empires” emerged, including the Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, and the Mughal Empire. Other established states or dynasties succumbed to firearms, however, because they were unable to make the social

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
  • Suggested Readings: 571
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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