The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Readings:
A. L. Basham, The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism (1989); Jeaneane Fowler, Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices (1997).
hinterland. An inland region behind a coastal settlement. In the days of colonial expansion the doctrine of a hinterland was important for agreeing on spheres of interest in order to limit imperial conflict.
Hirohito (1901–1989). “Shoōwa” (“Enlightened Peace”) Emperor of Japan, 1926–1989. Hirohito sat on the Chrysanthemum Throne for 63 years, far longer than anyone in the 800-year history of the dynasty. A figure of continuing controversy, Hirohito believed strongly that he was obligated solely to his imperial ancestors rather than to law or constitutional government. His exact role in Japan’s imperial surge before and during World War II is unknown: many records were destroyed, others remain closely guarded, by the Imperial Household. Under the Meiji constitution Hirohito had broad powers. Was he a central decision-maker or not? At the least, Hirohito chose not to use his position to deflect Japan’s militarists from a course of aggression; and he well may have been an active and willing participant in councils of war and empire. Certainly contemporary rescripts show he was deeply satisfied with victories and conquest. Later scholarship too strongly suggests that Hirohito was informed of, and participated in, Japan’s major wartime policies. Thus implicated in planning wars of aggression—unprovoked attacks on Manchuria and China, cynical alliance with the Axis, brutal expansion into Southeast Asia, the attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor, and mistreatment of prisoners of war—Hirohito might easily have been charged as a major war criminal. He was not tried at the Tokyo war crimes trials, however, mainly out of U.S. concern over permanently alienating Japan, and in spite of the desire of most other allies in the Pacific, especially Nationalist China, to have him stand trial.

During the occupation, Hirohito’s reputation was sanitized by MacArthur with the eager cooperation of conservative Japanese opinion-makers, enabling Hirohito and the Japanese people to be depicted—alongside Chinese, Filipinos, and others—as another set of victims of Tokyo’s deviant militarists. Hirohito aided the propaganda by portraying himself as a simple gardener—he was in fact an amateur botanist—who had kept aloof from all politics and military decision-making. On the other hand, Hirohito was clearly a weak man, probably easily influenced by stronger-willed militarists. Had he declined


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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
  • Suggested Readings: 571
  • Suggested Readings: 572
  • Suggested Reading: 573
  • Suggested Reading: 582
  • Suggested Readings: 583
  • Suggested Readings: 584
  • Suggested Readings: 590
  • Suggested Readings: 591
  • G 601
  • Suggested Reading: 604
  • Suggested Reading: 618
  • Suggested Readings: 624
  • Suggested Reading: 625
  • Suggested Reading: 636
  • Suggested Readings: 638
  • Suggested Readings: 645
  • Suggested Reading: 650
  • Suggested Readings: 651
  • Suggested Readings: 653
  • Suggested Reading: 655
  • Suggested Readings: 657
  • Suggested Reading: 662
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  • Suggested Reading: 668
  • Suggested Readings: 671
  • Suggested Readings: 675
  • Suggested Readings: 677
  • Suggested Readings: 678
  • H 681
  • Suggested Readings: 685
  • Suggested Readings: 687
  • Suggested Reading: 688
  • Suggested Reading: 691
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  • I 752
  • Suggested Readings: 761
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  • Suggested Readings: 800
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  • J 846
  • Suggested Readings: 847
  • Suggested Readings: 872
  • Suggested Reading: 874
  • K 884
  • Suggested Readings: 892
  • Suggested Readings: 895
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  • Suggested Reading: 898
  • Suggested Reading: 900
  • Suggested Readings: 904
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  • Suggested Readings: 916
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  • Suggested Readings: 925
  • L 927
  • Suggested Readings: 934
  • Suggested Reading: 935
  • Suggested Readings: 938
  • Suggested Reading: 952
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  • Suggested Readings: 985


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