The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Readings:
Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire (1999); Martin Sherwin, A World Destroyed (1987).
Hispaniola. One of the larger Caribbean islands, it was inhabited by Arawak Indians when stumbled upon by Columbus in 1492. During his second voyage to the New World, Columbus enslaved the Indians as part of the encomienda system, which cursed much of Spanish America for centuries. Within a decade, most of the Indians were dead from disease and drudgery. From this island base, Spanish conquistadors fanned out to conquer the other islands of the Caribbean, and then the Aztec and Inca empires. The capital of the modern Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo, was founded in 1496 by Columbus’ brother. It is the oldest, permanent European settlement in the Western hemisphere. The western third of Hispaniola (St. Domingue) was ceded to France in 1697. After a slave revolt it became independent as Haiti in 1804.

Suggested Reading:
Michele Wucker, Why the Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, and the Struggle for Hispaniola (1999).
Hiss, Alger (1904–1996). American spy for the Soviet Union. Hiss had a stellar legal career, clerking on the Supreme Court for Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and later practicing in Boston and New York. He joined the Department of State in 1936 and rose rapidly. During World War II he was a senior foreign policy adviser and attended several key planning conferences. In 1947 he was appointed president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. In 1948 he was accused by a former Communist, Whittaker Chambers, of being a spy for the Soviet Union, a charge Hiss always denied. After a spectacularly controversial trial, he was convicted of perjury related to the charge and was imprisoned, 1950–1954. He was always defended by Dean Acheson in face of fierce attacks from the right, almost certainly because Acheson believed Hiss and had a deep sense of personal loyalty. The case also helped elevate a young congressman, Richard Nixon, to national prominence. In 1990 Oleg Gordievsky, a high-ranking KGB defector, stated that Hiss indeed had been a penetration agent, and in 1995, just before Hiss died, Soviet archive documents showed he clearly was. Indeed, he had been decorated in secret by the KGB.

Suggested Readings:
Whittaker Chambers, Witness (1952, 1997); Alan Weinstein, Perjury (1978, 1997); Alan Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood (1999).
historical interpretation. In international law, interpretation of a treaty with explicit reference to its negotiation and drafting.
historical materialism.See dialectical materialism; Marxism.

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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