The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview
100 days of the Inauguration or else the new president is said to have “stumbled early” or “gotten off to a bad start.”
Suggested Readings:
Peter Hofschröer, 1815: The Waterloo Campaign (1998); Henry Lachouque, Waterloo (trans, 1975).
Hundred Flowers campaign (1956–1957). A brief renaissance of dissent within China, launched by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in part as a way of assessing the meaning for intellectuals and significance for China of Khrushchev’s attack on Stalin in the secret speech, but also as a means of stirring erstwhile revolutionaries who were fast becoming staid bureaucrats, and lastly as a cynical trap to expose those critical of Mao and the party line. (It should be noted that there is some doubt about that later motivation, but also that Mao himself later proclaimed it had moved him to act.) Its slogan was: “Let a hundred flowers bloom, let a thousand schools of thought contend.” Nothing could have been further from Mao’s real intentions or from his temperament as dictator. As long as criticism focused on lower cadres, Mao was content; but when it turned public attention to mistakes of his own leadership (May 1–June 7, 1957), he bristled and acted. Mao joined the CCP hard-liners in calling for an “anti-rightist” campaign. The brief opening to constructive criticism had exposed his “enemies,” and he now ruthlessly uprooted the “hundred flowers” of dissent, which had sprung up in the form of “Democracy Wall” posters, courageous pamphlets, and ersatz newspapers and tossed their authors on China’s prison camp dung heap like so many unwanted weeds. Half a million or more were purged. Loyal ignoramuses from the countryside then took their places. Far from feeling shame over this betrayal, Mao later boasted of his vaunted revolutionary ruthlessness.
Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453). The running conflict between Plantagenet England and Capetian France, whose main issue was a contest for control of Normandy. It was underlain by, and also greatly aggravated, the suffering and dislocation of the population and economy of much of Western Europe that attended the Black Death. Its immediate casus belli, on the other hand, were territorial quarrels, English desire to monopolize the Flanders trade, and French intrigues with the Scottish court. In 1339 the Norman King of England, Edward III, crossed the channel with a mercenary army (largely paid for by the Hansa) to prosecute his claim to the French crown. The French avoided battle, and England’s army and allies dwindled. Spectacular English successes were later won against superior numbers with a revolutionary new weapon, the longbow, as at Crécy (1346), where 1,500 French nobles fell compared with 100 English dead. Edward then besieged and took Calais the next year. A major English victory came at Poitiers (1356), where the French king (John the Good) was taken hostage and held for a king’s ransom—and until he signed a favorable peace in 1360. Norman government did not sit well with most French nobles in Gascony, and war soon resumed. By the mid-1370s the French had won back much lost in the forced peace of 1360. All was nearly lost again at Agincourt (1415), where the flower of French chivalry, some 5,000 knights, were killed—1,000 were slaughtered after they surrendered. The French were compelled to recognize the English King, Henry V, as heir to the throne and surrender large provinces to Henry and his Burgundian allies. The French appeared finally defeated.

Yet, the war ended some 40 years later with England’s near complete expulsion from its historic, Norman holdings on the continent because the French overcame the English longbow with wonder weapons of their own: firearms. French mortars and other artillery bashed down the great Norman castles, and arquebusiers kept English longbow troops at bay on the field of battle. Burgundy changed sides in 1435. The French continued to advance, finally capturing Bordeaux in 1453 and driving the English-Norman army across the Channel, leaving England’s kings in possession of only Calais (to 1558) on the continent. That extraordinary victory was memorialized, and romanticized, in the story of Jeanne D’Arc (c. 1412–1431), the “Maid of Orléans,” who helped raise the English siege of Orléans in 1429 and saw the Dauphin crowned as Charles VII of France. She certainly contributed to the French victory, but it was a feat of arms owing more to a new technology purchased with improved finances and state organization, sustained by royal determination and by a proto form of what centuries later would be called nationalism—which Jeanne D’Arc both tapped and inspired. France’s victory set the stage for the next great dynastic contest in Europe, between Valois and Habsburg. And by destroying the power of the nobility, French and Anglo-Norman, it set France and England on the road to creating national, centralized monarchies many decades ahead of the other powers of Europe. See alsogunpowder revolution;Jacquerie; prohibited weapons; revolution in military affairs.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
  • Suggested Readings: 571
  • Suggested Readings: 572
  • Suggested Reading: 573
  • Suggested Reading: 582
  • Suggested Readings: 583
  • Suggested Readings: 584
  • Suggested Readings: 590
  • Suggested Readings: 591
  • G 601
  • Suggested Reading: 604
  • Suggested Reading: 618
  • Suggested Readings: 624
  • Suggested Reading: 625
  • Suggested Reading: 636
  • Suggested Readings: 638
  • Suggested Readings: 645
  • Suggested Reading: 650
  • Suggested Readings: 651
  • Suggested Readings: 653
  • Suggested Reading: 655
  • Suggested Readings: 657
  • Suggested Reading: 662
  • Suggested Reading: 665
  • Suggested Reading: 668
  • Suggested Readings: 671
  • Suggested Readings: 675
  • Suggested Readings: 677
  • Suggested Readings: 678
  • H 681
  • Suggested Readings: 685
  • Suggested Readings: 687
  • Suggested Reading: 688
  • Suggested Reading: 691
  • Suggested Reading: 692
  • Suggested Reading: 694
  • Suggested Readings: 711
  • Suggested Readings: 712
  • Suggested Readings: 713
  • Suggested Readings: 716
  • Suggested Reading: 722
  • Suggested Readings: 723
  • Suggested Readings: 725
  • Suggested Readings: 728
  • Suggested Reading: 731
  • Suggested Readings: 743
  • Suggested Readings: 744
  • Suggested Readings: 750
  • Suggested Reading: 751
  • I 752
  • Suggested Readings: 761
  • Suggested Reading: 773
  • Suggested Readings: 774
  • Suggested Readings: 777
  • Suggested Reading: 781
  • Suggested Readings: 785
  • Suggested Readings: 792
  • Suggested Readings: 795
  • Suggested Readings: 800
  • Suggested Readings: 801
  • Suggested Readings: 805
  • Suggested Readings: 813
  • Suggested Readings: 821
  • Suggested Readings: 825
  • Suggested Reading: 826
  • Suggested Readings: 828
  • Suggested Readings: 833
  • Suggested Readings: 836
  • Suggested Readings: 839
  • Suggested Reading: 843
  • Suggested Readings: 844
  • J 846
  • Suggested Readings: 847
  • Suggested Readings: 872
  • Suggested Reading: 874
  • K 884
  • Suggested Readings: 892
  • Suggested Readings: 895
  • Suggested Readings: 896
  • Suggested Reading: 898
  • Suggested Reading: 900
  • Suggested Readings: 904
  • Suggested Reading: 913
  • Suggested Readings: 914
  • Suggested Readings: 916
  • Suggested Readings: 917
  • Suggested Readings: 925
  • L 927
  • Suggested Readings: 934
  • Suggested Reading: 935
  • Suggested Readings: 938
  • Suggested Reading: 952
  • Suggested Readings: 957
  • Suggested Reading: 963
  • Suggested Readings: 966
  • Suggested Readings: 973
  • Suggested Readings: 979
  • Suggested Readings: 985


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 986

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.