The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview
needed. In 1949 a supplementary convention granted it formal authority to investigate treatment of civilians in war zones, as well as prisoners of war. It has been without peer in ensuring respect for the sanctity of hospitals and medical personnel, even in the midst of battle. It helped advance into law, and, to a degree, also into actual practice, respect for just war ideals of mercy for all wounded and the key distinction between combatant and civilian. It seeks access to prisoner of war camps, it ships mail and minor luxuries (soap, candy, etc.) to hard-pressed POWs, and it seeks to ensure respect for the Geneva Conventions. For all that, it is not universally accepted: states sometimes refuse its services and oversight of their conduct. It was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1917, 1944, and 1963. See also (Count) Folke Bernadotte; Médecins sans Frontières.
Suggested Readings:
Jean-Claude Favez, The Red Cross and the Holocaust (1999); Michael Pollard, The Red Cross and the Red Crescent (1994).
international commodity agreement (ICA). Unlike a cartel, such agreements include consumers as well as producers, all with a shared interest in stabilizing prices. ICAs use buffer stocks and export quotas to try to even out fluctuations within an agreed range for the price of a given commodity. SeeIntegrated Program for Commodities (IPC).
International Court of Justice (ICJ). The World Court. The principal judicial organ of the United Nations system; it meets at The Hague. It is the direct successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. As its founding statute is contained in the Charter of the United Nations, all members of the UN belong to the ICJ (non-UN members may also join). Its 15 judges are elected to nine-year terms by the Security Council and General Assembly, voting independently of each other; other judges are ad hoc, according to the states involved in a given case. Justices are supposed to represent not merely a high level of legal competence, but also the world’s major civilizations and legal systems. Although the ICJ has procedures permitting compulsory jurisdiction, most cases are brought before it voluntarily when both parties to a justiciable dispute agree to seek a ruling. It may also issue advisory opinions upon the request of the General Assembly, individual states, or any of the specialized agencies. Its judgments must reflect the tenets of international law. See also chambers of the Court; error; ex aequo; excess of authority; Optional Clause.
International Criminal Court (ICC). It was authorized for establishment in The Hague pursuant to a treaty negotiated in Rome in 1998. By December 31, 2000, the last open date for signature without going through a full ratification process, 139 states had signed and 27 had ratified. Sixty ratifications are required before the court may be called into session, as the first standing (permanent) international court with jurisdiction to try individuals. Charges

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
  • Suggested Readings: 571
  • Suggested Readings: 572
  • Suggested Reading: 573
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  • Suggested Readings: 590
  • Suggested Readings: 591
  • G 601
  • Suggested Reading: 604
  • Suggested Reading: 618
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  • Suggested Reading: 636
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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