|international criminal law. A historically rare, but rapidly developing, area of international concern wherein individuals are explicitly subject to international law. It falls into two categories: (1) Crimes of war: aggression, war crimes and crimes against humanity. (2) Crimes in peacetime: apartheid, genocide,hijacking,hostage taking, piracy, slave trade, terrorism, torture, and white slavery.|
|International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL). Set up in 1923, it coordinates police information concerning criminal (not political) activity, especially pertaining to counterfeiting of currency, smuggling, and the drug trade. The majority of states are members, though some delayed joining for many years and the degree of cooperation varies. It was originally based in Vienna, until the Anschluss. After World War II it was revived and moved to Paris (1946). It coordinates information on the suspected location of known criminals who have fled to foreign jurisdictions, with an eye to facilitating arrest, by the various national or local police agencies, and extradition. It does not itself have powers of arrest.|
|international customary law. Established, historical conduct by the states that is accepted by the vast majority of states as legally binding even without its principles being codified in a treaty. However, once a new law-making treaty comes into effect, its terms override custom. To establish a customary practice as a binding rule in the absence of a treaty, in addition to following regular patterns of conduct over time, states must also clearly accept a legal obligation to do so, either expressly by formal statement or inherently as may be inferred from their actions. See also consent; convictio juris; declaration;illegal act;incorporation;intervention;judicial legislation; jus cogens; law-creating processes; necessity; opino juris; quarantine; remedy; transformation; UNCLOS III; Vienna Conventions.|
|International Development Association (IDA). It was established in 1960 as an affiliate of the IBRD to offer soft loans to Third World countries for development purposes. Membership is nearly universal among states. Its lending conditions tend to be on much easier terms than regular IBRD loans.|
|International Finance Corporation (IFC). It was created in 1956 as an affiliate of the IBRD. It is concerned with cofinancing private investment in member countries, especially in LDCs where private capital is not so easily procured. State membership is nearly universal. In 1994 it began securitizing |
its loans. In addition to its own lending, it has cofinanced loans with commercial banks, thereby providing long-term debt financing to LDCs. It also promotes equity investment.