The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Readings:
Alexander DeConde, History of American Foreign Policy, 2 vols. (1978); Norman Graebner, Foundations of American Foreign Policy (1985).
Isonzo, Battles of (1915–1918). Twelve separate, bloody World War I battles carried this name, four in 1915 alone. All were fought on the hard, impenetrable alpine front between Austria and Italy; none was decisive. The total casualties, on all sides, of these twelve discrete battles reached 1.75 million. See also Caporetto.

Suggested Reading:
John Schindler, Isonzo (2001).
Israel. Starting in the late 1890s, spurred by the new nationalist vision of Zionism, Jewish immigration to Palestine increased substantially. The Balfour Declaration greatly advanced hope for Great Power support for a Jewish state in Palestine to follow World War I, and therefore also increased Arab concerns and resistance to further Jewish immigration. Intercommunal violence broke out in the 1920s, and in the 1930s and 1940s low-level but chronic guerrillawarfare was waged by Jewish settlers (in the Haganah,Irgun, and Stern Gang) against British mandate troops and authorities, and armed Arabs who now resisted Jewish plans for a homeland in Palestine with growing militancy and violence. The British abandoned their mandate after World War II, along with other obligations of empire they could no longer sustain, leaving it to a United Nations Special Committee on Palestine to seek a solution. The Committee proposed a partition of the Palestine Mandate territory into separate Jewish and Arab states, with Jerusalem and its immediate environs to be governed as an international city. The territory was accordingly partitioned by resolutions passed by the United Nations General Assembly. Israel was thereby legally established on May 14, 1948. The Arab states refused to accept the partition, would not extend recognition to Israel, and rejected what most of the world had come to see and accept: that the Holocaust demonstrated beyond argument the vital necessity of a separate Jewish homeland, if not for reasons of retroactive shame, compensation, and justice, then as a final refuge from future pogroms and campaigns of anti-Semitism, wherever these might occur.

Fighting in Palestine had actually begun in November 1947, as a form of battlefield pre-positioning in the run-up to the expected partition. The scale (and legal character) of the war changed dramatically on the night of Israel’s formal achievement of statehood. Armies from Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and Transjordan all invaded within hours, beginning the First Arab-Israeli War. A cease-fire finally held after June 1949, leaving Israel with 21 percent more of Palestine than it would have retained had the Arab states not attacked it. No peace treaty or general settlement followed the cease-fire, so that an apprehended state of war between Israel and the Arab states ensued that would

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
  • Suggested Reading: 548
  • Suggested Reading: 557
  • Suggested Readings: 571
  • Suggested Readings: 572
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  • G 601
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  • Suggested Reading: 636
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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