The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Reading:
George Holmes, ed., Oxford History of Italy (1997).
Itoō Hirobumi (1841–1909). Modern Japan’s first prime minister, 1885–1888, 1892–1896, and 1900–1901. He was a prime mover in the effort to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate and then to modernize and westernize Japan during the Meiji Restoration. He was a member of the Iwakura mission to the West that sought revision of the unequal treaties. His impressions of Bismarck’s Germany greatly influenced his policies and the constitution he later crafted. He also oversaw Japan’s first effort at overseas expansion in the Sino-Japanese War. He was cautious about the Anglo-Japanese Alliance: as founder of the modern Japanese Navy, he preferred an accommodation with Russia, the more likely enemy. He was the last major figure to agree to war with Russia in 1904. Yet, his navy proved its mettle during the Russo-Japanese War that followed. He was appointed the first resident general in Korea in 1905. Revered in Japan as the greatest of the genrō, in 1909 Itō was assassinated by a Korean opponent of Japanese occupation. That act remains abhorrent to most Japanese but is celebrated by many Korean nationalists.
Ivan III (1440–1505). “The Great.” Founder of the Russian Empire. Ivan III was the Grand Duke of Moscow when he threw off the yoke of the Tartars from Muscovy and united the feudal peoples of the surrounding steppes into a powerful and aggressive Slavic kingdom. He then launched Muscovy on a historic trajectory of imperial expansion that ultimately resulted in creation of a vast Russian Empire. As a young man he led an expedition against the Tartars in 1458. Upon becoming Grand Duke in 1462 he set about the defeat of the Golden Horde, the vestige of the Mongol empire that had held Muscovy and other Russian states in vassalage for 200 years. He struck in 1467–1469, liberating Muscovy from Mongol overlordship in a series of brilliant victories. He next conquered the surrounding Russian city-states that lay within reach, including Tver, Yaroslavl, Rostov, and, most importantly, Novgorod, long a major rival to Moscow. There followed a bitter contest with several of his brothers, two of whom allied with the Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania. At his death, Ivan had converted Muscovy into Russia, a rising empire that would come to dominate eastern Europe over the next three centuries even while expanding intermittently but impressively into the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia. See also Alexander I; Alexander II; Catherine II; Vladimir Lenin; Nicholas I; Nicholas II; Peter I; Josef Stalin.

Suggested Reading:
Ian Grey, Ivan III and the Unification of Russia (1964).
Ivan IV (1530–1584). “The Terrible.” Grand duke of Moscow (1533–1584) and the Russian ruler who first claimed the title tsar. After emerging from a

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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