|Jackson-Vanik Amendment (1974). An amendment sponsored by Senator Henry (“Scoop”) Jackson (D-Washington) and Representative Charles Vanik (R-Ohio), attached to Richard Nixon’s omnibus 1974 trade bill. It tied Soviet compliance on free emigration for Russia’s Jews to access to U.S. trade, technology, and credits. The bill was intended as the carrot in Nixon’s strategy of linkage of trade with Soviet foreign policy restraint, but Congress linked trade instead to internal policies. The Soviets rejected the bill and stopped Jewish emigration entirely for several years. It thus marked a turning from détente, as well as new salience for conflict over human rights in American-Soviet relations. Because it linked human rights to trade with all Communist countries, in the 1990s it raised an annual problem regarding most-favored-nation (MFN) status for China and Vietnam. See also normal trade relations (NTR).|
|Jacobins.Republican political clubs that ultimately grew into the most radical faction in the French Revolution. Dominated by Danton and Robespierre, from 1792 the Jacobins gained increasing control over the course of the Revolution. Through the Committee on Public Safety they conducted “The Terror,” |
called for the levée en masse, took credit for throwing back invading monarchist armies, and proclaimed revolutionary war against the established governments and governing principles of Europe. The Terror was so indiscriminate (even Danton felt the blade on his neck) that, once the foreign threat receded, the Jacobins were overthrown in the Thermidorian reaction in 1794. About 150 Jacobin leaders were sent to the guillotine with Robespierre. Their influence lingered as a dire warning to conservatives and as a promise and example to radical reformers. “Jacobin Clubs” sprang up in many European countries but were especially active in northern Italy.