|Kush, Kingdom of.See Nubia.|
|Kutuzov, Mikhail Ilarionovich (1745–1813). Tsarist field marshal. He took his commission in the Tsarist artillery corps at age 16. At 19 he saw his first action, during an intervention in Poland, 1764–1769. In 1770 he lost an eye fighting the Ottomans in the Crimea. He fought the Turks repeatedly, as did Russia, over the next 30 years. From 1793 to 1802 he held diplomatic positions in Constantinople and Berlin, was governor of Finland, and was military commander of St. Petersburg. He retired in 1802 but was recalled and commanded at Austerlitz (1805) against Napoleon I. He again fought the Turks, 1811–1812, this time inflicting on them a decisive defeat. Kutuzov was given overall command when Napoleon invaded Russia in the summer of 1812. He conducted an orderly retreat, drawing the French and allied regiments deep into the vast Russian hinterland. He stood and fought at Borodino on September 7th, losing the field but still falling back in good order at day’s end. He launched ferocious attacks on the French during the retreat from Moscow and lived to see them out of Russia, into Poland, and on to Prussia. He did not live to see victory at the Battle of the Nations, or Napoleon’s abdication.|
|Kuwait. A small desert nation ruled by the al-Sabah dynasty and extended family elite. By 1759 it was incorporated as a province within the Ottoman Empire, but it enjoyed some autonomy. In the late nineteenth century the Sabahs began to secretly cultivate the British, while feigning continued loyalty to the Ottomans. In 1896 Sheik Mubarak al-Sabah seized power by murdering his half-brother in a quarrel over money, not principle as is averred in nationalist accounts. Ottoman pressure and Saudi intrigues persuaded the reigning sheik to sign a secret bond with Britain (which feared that Russia might build a railway through the Gulf) making Kuwait a de facto British protectorate, 1899–1961. In 1913 an unratified Anglo-Ottoman convention recognized Ottoman suzerainty over Kuwait but acknowledged Kuwaiti sovereignty and British protection. In 1914, once war broke out, Britain recognized Kuwait as a distinct territory. Oil production began in 1938, making Kuwait attractive to Iraq. Iraq claimed it in June 1961, when Britain an-|
nounced its intention to permit Kuwaiti independence. Iraq tried to annex Kuwait, to which it said it had been linked in the “vilayet of Basra” under the Ottomans. Kuwait thus achieved independence over Iraqi protests, as the British made a large-scale display of force and sent crack troops back to the desert state as a deterrent to Baghdad. They were later replaced by an Arab League force from Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Egypt. During the 1960s and 1970s Kuwait prospered, sending only token forces to fight against Israel in 1973. By the 1980s it was one of the wealthiest (per capita) nations in the world. It imported Palestinians and others to do most manual labor, while dispensing wealth to, and repressing dissent by, Kuwaitis. It supported Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War, for which the al-Sabah family earned the enmity of Iran. Iraq, too, then turned on Kuwait: on August 2, 1990, Saddam Hussein sent his army into Kuwait, despoiled it, and two weeks later annexed it as his own “Province 19.” The Gulf War followed. Liberation came on February 27, 1991. Retribution came the next day: Palestinians were expelled for supporting the Iraqis, and accused Kuwaiti collaborators were swiftly executed. The al-Sabah family did not return for more than a month, waiting until their palaces were cleaned and restocked with creature comforts. Reform and democratization was reluctantly promised and was slow arriving: in 2001 Kuwait reaffirmed denial of the franchise for women. After 1991 Kuwaiti policy was enthusiastically pro-Western, as it dropped a historic neutrality in favor of close military cooperation with Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States.