The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2

By Cathal J. Nolan | Go to book overview

Suggested Reading:
R. Misiunas et al., The Baltic States (1983).
launcher. The lift vehicle that boosts a missile on its flight path (as distinct from the warhead, which is the missile’s ultimate raison d’être). Launchers may be land-based (ICBM), submarine-based (SLBM), or loosed from an aircraft (ALBM and ASBM).
launch-on-warning. A defense condition wherein one fires a retaliatory counterstrike once incoming missiles have been confirmed but before their warheads detonate, so that one’s own missiles are not destroyed in the enemy’s first strike. It is a strategic posture that strains toward the possibility of accidental war. See also second strike.
Laurier, Wilfred (1841–1919). First French-Canadian prime minister of Canada, 1896–1911. He agreed to an imperial tariff and loyally sent troops to fight for the British Empire in the Second Boer War. When he sought a free trade arrangement with the United States, however, his government fell. Like virtually all politicians from Québec, he opposed conscription during World War I.
Lausanne Conference (1932).See reparations.
Lausanne, Treaty of (July 24, 1923). The second, and final, peace treaty formally ending World War I between the Allies and Turkey, as well as the Greek-Turkish War (1919–1922). It replaced the Treaty of Sèvres. Turkey gave up all claim to the old Ottoman lands in Europe, except a small area around Constantinople; Greece received most of the Aegean islands, but returned Smyrna (Izmir); Britain’s control of Cyprus and Italy’s of the Dodecanese was confirmed; the Bosporus and Dardanelles were demilitarized; and a transfer of Greek and Turkish populations was effected, totaling nearly 1.5 million persons. The real losers were the Kurds, who lost a homeland promised them by Sèvres. Lausanne also ended Turkey’s burden of reparations, which was already minimal in Sèvres. See also Curzon; Eastern Question.

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The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iv
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xxi
  • F 530
  • Suggested Reading: 534
  • Suggested Readings: 547
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  • G 601
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  • H 681
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  • I 752
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  • J 846
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  • K 884
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  • L 927
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