Values and Value Conflicts
in the Professions
Why is it that experts primarily teach techniques to young professionals, while ignoring the values that have sustained the quests of so many creative geniuses
—Gardner, Csikszentmihalyi, & Damon
This chapter and the remainder of Part II deal with professional values, values conflicts, and role conflicts that are attributable to the complex nature of any profession and the settings in which it is performed. Some reflect strains within the field of psychology and the sciences in general; some characterize the interface between the values of psychology and those of business, which is, of course, the meeting ground on which I/O psychology is practiced. First, I discuss the professions in general.
It is quite obvious that the particular ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in the practice of medicine, law, psychology, anthropology, policing, accountancy, and so on are very different. The knowledge bases of the fields, as well as the nature of the services provided and their setting, the degree of autonomy enjoyed by the practitioners as sanctioned by society, and the norms and values characterizing each are all rather different. Consequently, the ethical guidelines adopted by members of these occupations are distinctly different. Accordingly, there are some scholars who believe that a consideration of professional ethics must be particular to each profession— or occupation aspiring to the status of a profession. Supporting that view is research indicating that the values of those in different professions, even at the time of their graduate training, are different (J. T Edwards, Nalbandian, & Wedel, 1981) and that different professional groups within the same