Principles and Methods of Social Research

By William D. Crano; Marilynn B. Brewer | Go to book overview

CHAPTER
14

SCALINGSTIMULI: SOCIALPSYCHOPHYSICS

Chapters 11, 12, and 13 discussed and examined techniques applicable in general observational research settings. In each of these earlier chapters, constructing, using, and scoring some type of coding scheme or schedule of questions were seen as necessary features of the investigative process if the aim of the observational research was testing, rather than generating, hypotheses. Often, the psychometric quality of the coding systems used in an observational situations is not a major consideration. This lack of attention to the statistical or psychometric properties of the measuring device is attributable to the fact that the coding scheme used by the observational researcher is viewed as a “one-shot” instrument.1 Most classification systems are constructed to satisfy the needs of a specific investigative setting. Indeed, as we continually suggest throughout this book, observational studies should be designed with the research setting in mind. Thus, considerations of the specific sample of individuals under investigation, their limitations, the physical dimensions of the research context, the behaviors of interest, and so on should all be taken into account in constructing the coding system. This observation suggests that a system suitable for the study of a teenage motorcycle gang in Shaker Heights, Ohio, might not prove useful in studying the adjustment behavior of a group of first-year medical students in Pomona, California.

Tailoring an instrument to the research context (i.e., the respondent sample, the time, or the place in which the research will occur) is characteristic of many of the classification systems employed in social research. However, this degree of instrument tailoring is not typical when investigators attempt to develop scales of high generalizability across time, populations, and contexts. Developing and using scales of high utility, generality, and psychometric quality (i.e., of high reliability and validity) is a common and important feature in the life of the social researcher, and the next two chapters focus on the ways in which such measuring instruments are constructed and interpreted. As we show, some

____________________
1
Exceptions to this generalization can be found (e.g., Bales', 1950, classification system, which is still used among researchers investigating small group interaction), but in most instances, the average number of applications of any given coding system appearing in the psychological literature is very close to 1.0.

-264-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Principles and Methods of Social Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 416

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.