Strategy Representation: An Analysis of Planning Knowledge

By Andrew S. Gordon | Go to book overview

CHAPTER
3

Representational Requirements

3.1 REPRE5EHTATIOM IM MODELS OF PLANMIMQ

One of the hallmarks of Artificial Intelligence planning systems is the general absence of representational commitments. In many ways, this line of research has been successful in achieving its goal of building a general problem solver (Newell & Simon, 1963), where this has come to mean an algorithm that searches for a successful solution to a problem (a plan) given any well-specified search space. Over the many years that researchers have developed these algorithms, only a few representational constraints have been needed to advance the technology, notably the introduction a planning operator formalism (Fikes & Nilsson, 1971), a notation for specifying quantified preconditions and context-dependent effects (Pednault, 1989), and a means of describing plans as a hierarchy of tasks (Wilkins, 1988). The strength of this research tradition is that it has enabled comparative evaluations of implemented planning systems, where each is given identical specifications of the search space (McDermott, 2000).

The problematic downside to the representational agnosticism of artificial intelligence planning systems is the gulf that it creates between these technologies and the real humans that would like to use them for everyday problem solving and planning. Highlighted by continuing work on mixed-initiative planning (e.g., Ferguson, 1995), human-computer cooperation will require the development of systems with representational commitments that are more in accordance with people's commonsense understanding of goal-directed behavior. The difficulty in achieving this accord stems from the

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Strategy Representation: An Analysis of Planning Knowledge
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Chapter 1 - Strategies and Cognition 1
  • Chapter 2 - Strategic Analogies 11
  • Chapter 3 - Representational Requirements 23
  • Chapter 4 - Strategy Representations 47
  • Chapter 5 - Conceptual Index to Strategies 223
  • Chapter 6 - Representational Areas 267
  • References 339
  • Author Index 343
  • Subject Index 347
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