|i.||The number of those working the twelve-hour day is 69,000. (Testimony of E. H. Gary, Senate Investigation, Vol. I, p. 157.)|
|ii.||The number of those receiving the common labor or lowest rate of pay is 70,000. (Letters of E. H. Gary to this Commission.)|
This means that approximately 350,0001 men, women and children are directly affected by the longest hours or the smallest pay in that part of the industry owned by the United States Steel Corporation, which fixes pay and hours without conference with the labor force.
Since this corporation controls about half the industry, it is therefore a reasonably conservative estimate that working conditions of three quarters of a million of the nation's population have their lives determined arbitrarily by the twelve-hour day or by the lowest pay in the steel industry.
This nub of the situation, the Commission found, was subordinated, and after the strike remained subordinate, to the industry's warfare over collective bargaining. Both sides were enmeshed. The huge steel companies, committed to a non-union system (and offering no alternative) and the masses of workers, moving as workers do traditionally, seemed both to be helpless. Espionage replaced collective bargaining or cooperative service.____________________
From The Interchurch World Movement, Report on the Steel Strike of 1919, pp. 3-18, 31-36, 38, 39, 41, 44-48, 50-52, 57-60, 65, 144-45, 147-153, 219, 226-27, 233, 236, 238-40. Copyright, 1920, by Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.