INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
The topics treated in this second conference represent, to a major extent, unfinished business of the first conference. A reading of the proceedings of the first conference will reveal, at several points, concern with matters such as meaningfulness, familiarity, syntax, immediate memory, and one-trial learning. Few of these topics were treated explicitly in the first meeting, but they all received direct treatment in the present conference. Other topics treated here did not figure in the earlier deliberations as directly as those just mentioned, but again, the record of the first conference shows some concern with mediational mechanisms and the selectivity which subjects often show in the responses they give to specific situations. The treatments in this second conference of stimulus selection, mediated associations, and purpose and associative selectivity are relevant to these concerns touched on a year and a half ago. Recognition processes, the remaining subject in the second conference, are regarded as basic to many other issues.
There is, then, a good deal of continuity between the conferences. Taken together, they give a picture of substantial scope of the fields of verbal learning and verbal behavior and of their interrelationships. A summary of the major concerns of each session follows.
Murdock's paper is concerned with recognition as a means of measuring retention. Several kinds of recognition procedures may be distinguished, and Murdock's discussion is focussed on one of them, the multiple-choice type of test. He constructed tests of this kind, as well as a recall test, in order to study hypotheses about the recognition process. Analyses of test performance revealed that there were individual differences in the subjects' knowledge of the material, that their knowledge is not characterizable as an all-or-none matter, that the alternatives do not have equal probabilities of being selected as correct, and that the subject behaves as if he first eliminates alternatives he regards as wrong and then randomly selects his answer from the remaining alternatives.