Verbal Behavior and Learning: Problems and Processes: Proceedings

By Charles N. Cofer; Barbara S. Musgrave | Go to book overview
may not themselves be unitary, integrated psychological units. Some associations among their component parts may first be necessary before they can be associated with each other. And so we must assume that a package of associated elements--a cluster or a chunk--can itself function as an element that can be associated with some other package of associated elements. That is to say, the associations a subject forms are probably numerous and hierarchically organized. To continue the metaphor, we can have junk boxes filled with junk boxes. This process of forming associations between associations, rather than between stimuli and responses, is quite characteristic of complex associative learning and serves to distinguish it from simple S-R learning. But this point is more forcefully made in the paper on mediation contributed to this conference by James Jenkins.A learner is not finished when he has formed a single, simple bond from S to R. The learning process is far more complicated than that. If we want to know what could be going on in an all-or-none system during overlearning, a first guess might be that we are forming hierarchical patterns of associations. In the terms used by Kevin Lynch ( 1960) to describe the images people have of their cities, memory systems become progressively more rigid as more and more paths are learned between one part and another. Professor Olson, whose detour behavior Wallace Russell described, was not following a simple chain leading strictly from S's to R's; he must have had some supraordinate, associative structure imposed upon his image of his city, something that kept him oriented toward the postponed parts of his itinerary. Long after we are able to get along in a minimal way we go on adding new associations, making our associative structures ever stronger, more rigid, and more resistant to forgetting. Once we allow ourselves the luxury of these higher-order associations, most of the criticisms Postman aims at the extreme version of the all-or-none theory seem to lose their destructive force.In his conclusion Postman remarks that theories die hard. Sometimes I suspect that they never die. They don't even fade away. They just become uninhabited. For the time being, however, both of the theories we have been comparing here seem well populated by vigorous, opinionated exponents. The future looks interesting indeed.
REFERENCES
Feigenbaum E. A. ( 1959) "An information processing theory of verbal learning". Rand Report P-1817. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation.
Feigenbaum E. A., & Simon H. A. ( 1959) "A theory of the serial position effect". CIP Working Paper No. 14, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Pittsburgh.
Lynch K. ( 1960) The image of the city. Cambridge: Technology Press & Harvard University Press.

-328-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Verbal Behavior and Learning: Problems and Processes: Proceedings
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction and Summary 1
  • Chapter 2 - An Analysis of The Recognition Process 10
  • Comments on Professor Murdock's Paper 21
  • Chapter 3 - Stimulus Selection In Verbal Learning 33
  • References 48
  • References 48
  • References 67
  • Chapter 4 - Meaningfulness and Familiarity 76
  • Comments on Professor Noble's Paper 115
  • References 151
  • Chapter 5 - The Acquisition of Syntax 158
  • References 194
  • References 197
  • References 201
  • Chapter 6 - Mediated Associations: Paradigms and Situations 210
  • References 240
  • Comments on Professor Jenkins's Paper 242
  • References 245
  • References 252
  • Chapter 7 - Purpose and the Problem Of Associative Selectivity 258
  • References 289
  • Chapter 8 - One-Trial Learning 295
  • References 319
  • Comments on Professor Postman's Paper 320
  • References 328
  • Brief Notes on the Epam Theory Of Verbal Learning 332
  • References 333
  • Chapter 9 - Immediate Memory: Data and Theory 336
  • Comments on Professor Peterson's Paper 351
  • References 353
  • Chapter 10 - Summary and Evaluation 374
  • Index 383
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 400

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.