The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation

By Raman Sukumar | Go to book overview

1
Moeritheres, Mastodonts,
and Mammoths

Elephant Evolution in Action

1.1 Introduction

The evolution of elephants and related forms, collectively known as the proboscideans, is one of the better-recorded tales of mammalian evolution. Since its origin in the late Paleocene Epoch, about 60 million years (My) ago, the order Proboscidea witnessed a spectacular radiation until the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, about 10,000 years ago. The evolutionary course of the proboscideans, marked by an overall increase in body size, also took many seemingly bizarre paths, including extreme dwarfism and morphologies (seen from the fossil record) that only the most daring paleontologist could have otherwise imagined (fig. 1.1). There are many examples of parallel and convergent evolution. During this period, the proboscideans occupied almost every continental habitat type, including swamps, tundra, boreal forests, deserts, savannas, tropical forests, river basins, and high mountains. With the exception of Australia and Antarctica, fossil proboscideans have been found in every continent. Adaptations in anatomy and physiology of the proboscideans were obviously as diverse as the spread of habitats they occupied.

Interest in the story of elephant evolution is probably rivaled only by that of human evolution (and perhaps dinosaur extinctions). One reason is obviously our fascination with creatures larger than we are ourselves. In addition, the bones of large animals are more likely to be preserved and hence discovered and described in greater detail. The largest land mammal ever known is actually not a proboscidean. This was the giant “giraffe rhinoceros” or Indricoth-

-3-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xiii
  • The Living Elephants *
  • 1 - Elephant Evolution in Action 3
  • 2 - The Interrelationship of Culture and Ecology 55
  • 3 - The Elephantine Mating Game 89
  • 4 - The Social Life of Elephant Families 125
  • 5 - The Diet of a Megaherbivore 191
  • 6 - The Impact of Elephants on Their Habitats 223
  • 7 - The Dynamics of Elephant Populations 255
  • 8 - The Conflict Between Elephants and People 298
  • 9 - Conserving the Elephant Populations 352
  • Appendix 1 - Status and Distribution of Elephants 403
  • Appendix 2 - Statural Growth in Elephants 409
  • Notes 415
  • References 427
  • Author Index 455
  • Subject Index 459
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 478

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.