This book is written in a style to make it easy for the reader to trace the source of most of the material presented by checking the names of authors mentioned with the reference section. There may be some difficulty in pinpointing a specific reference when a particular author has several articles. These notes are intended to guide the reader more specifically to the sources for various sections in a chapter. While the reference section lists only books, journal articles, doctoral dissertations, and published conference proceedings that are readily accessible, the notes contain additional references to material such as conference abstracts or presentations, unpublished reports, institutional reports, newsletters, master's theses and, in some cases, data kindly made available to me by researchers.
The elephant has obviously been the subject of a large number of books catering to different audiences. The selections I list are the more scientific or substantive ones, including personalized accounts of the research of elephant biologists and certain large-format pictorial volumes. The works by Carrington (1958) and Sanderson (1962) are very readable accounts of the natural history of elephants and their relationship to people. Sikes (1971) was possibly the first to provide a technical account of the biology of (African) elephants. Laws, et al. (1975) and Buss (1990) detailed their pioneering research on African elephants in Uganda during the 1960s. The former especially provided much of the basic biological details of elephants for the subsequent African studies. DouglasHamilton and Douglas-Hamilton (1975), Hanks (1979), Moss (1988), Poole (1996), and Payne (1998) wrote engaging accounts of their work with African elephants. My early research of Asian elephant ecology was published as a scientific volume (Sukumar 1989a), as well as a popular account (Sukumar 1994a). The pioneering studies by scientists of the Smithsonian Institution on Asian elephants in Sri Lanka (Eisenberg and Lockhart 1972, McKay 1973) were reprinted along with a report by Seidensticker (see Notes 9.3) as a single volume (Eisenberg et al. 1990). Two more recent volumes, one by Daniel (1998) and the other by Lahiri-Choudhury (1999), have likewise brought together very useful pieces of the early literature on Asian elephant natural history, much of it written by hunters.
Eltringham (1982) provided a concise technical overview of the ecology of both African and Asian elephants. Spinage (1994) interwove anecdotal information with the more scientific studies in his descriptive account of the biology of elephants. Among the large-format pictorial books, I would recommend the multiauthor edited volumes of Eltringham (1991) and Shoshani (1992b). Several others on the market focus on the African elephant and are mainly pictorial. A lavishly illustrated recent volume by Grö ning and Saller (1998), however, covers considerable ground, from evolution to biology and the cultural history of elephants.