THE USE OF
Measurement procedures, as we have seen, provide samples of pupil behavior. Before inferences may be made from such samples, the reliability and validity of the measurement procedure must be determined. Ordinarily, the teacher has neither the technical training nor the time for determining the reliability and validity of his own tests. He is also limited in the kinds of inferences he may make from his own tests. He may not, for example, compare the performance of his students with that of other students who have had comparable learning experiences.
Standardized tests have been developed to provide such comparisons. These tests have been administered to large groups of students to provide data on comparative performances, and their reliability and validity have been determined.
The kinds of standardized tests available to teachers may be divided into two categories: (1) those that may be used to measure the attainment of objectives of learning experiences; (2) those that measure pupil characteristics related to the attainment of these objectives.