The Grand Camouflage: The Communist Conspiracy in the Spanish Civil War

By Burnett Bolloten | Go to book overview

4
The Revolution Hits the Small Bourgeoisie

T O the dismay of thousands of handicraftsmen, small manufacturers, and tradesmen, their premises and their equipment were expropriated by the labour unions of the Anarcliosyndicalist CNT, and often enough by the somewhat less radical unions of the Socialist UGT.1

In Madrid, for instance, the unions not only took over the premises and equipment of shoemakers, cabinet-makers, and other small-scale producers, but collectivized all the beauty parlours and barber shops, establishing the same wages for the former owners as for their employees.2 In Valencia, a city of over three hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants, nearly all plants, both large and small, were sequestered by the CNT and UGT,3 while in the region of Catalonia, where the Anarchosyndicalists were in almost unchecked ascendancy during the first months of the revolution,4 collectivization in many towns was carried out so thoroughly that it embraced not only the large factories

____________________
1
These confiscations, to be sure, were often carried out without the approval of the national leaders of the UGT. For criticisms by Pascual Tomás, its vice- secretary, of the confiscation of small property by local UGT unions, see La Correspondencia de Valencia, December 21, 1936; Adelante, February 13, 1937; Spartacus, July-August, 1938.
2
See Claridad, August 27, 1936; CNT, October 7, 1936.
3
See speech by the local Communist Party trade union secretary, reported in Frente Rojo, March 30, 1937. In A letter to the author, Antonio Villanueva, a member of the Valencia CNT, stated that the premises and equipment of nearly all the printers, cabinet-makers, tailors, dressmakers, barbers, beauticians, bootmakers, and other leather goods producers were taken over by the unions of that city. For the collectivization of the bakeries, confection cries, hotels, cafés, and bars in Valencia, see Nosotros, November 27, December 3, 1937.
4
The revolutionary developments in this region, although touched on occasionally, lie beyond the purview of this volume.

-48-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Grand Camouflage: The Communist Conspiracy in the Spanish Civil War
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 354

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.