The Grand Camouflage: The Communist Conspiracy in the Spanish Civil War

By Burnett Bolloten | Go to book overview

5
The Revolution in the Countryside

J UST as the artisans, small manufacturers, and small businessmen were exercised by the collectivization movement, so too were the peasant owners, tenant farmers, and sharecroppers. While it is true that rural collectivization was applied at the outset mainly to large estates on which landless peasants had worked as day labourers before the revolution -- a form of cultivation they spontaneously adopted -- it is no less true that it endangered the individual cultivator, who apprehended in its rapid growth a mortal danger to himself;1 for not

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1
For data on some of the agricultural collectives in different parts of the left camp, the following newspapers and periodicals published during and after the Civil War may be consulted: Acracia, July 19, 1937 ( Vallfogona, Castelló de Farfaña Belllmunt de Urgel, La Portella, Os de Balaguer), November 16, 17, 29, 30, 1937 ( Belvis de Jarama, Alguaire, Serós, Mayals, Rosas de Llobregat), December 16, 1937 ( Palau de Anglesola); La Batalla, August 26, 1936 ( Raimut); Boletín de Informadón, CNT-FAI, September 23, 1936 ( Pont de Molins), October 8, 1936 ( Palafrugell, Caldas de Malavella), March 24, 1937 ( Cabra del Campo), August 4, 17, 1937 ( Candasnos, Peñarroya de Tastavins), February ii, 1938 ( Bujaraloz); Castilla Libre, April 16, 1937 ( Membrilla), as given in Documentos Históricos de España, November, 1937; Claridad, December 14, 1936 ( Guadasur), February 16, 1937 ( Badajoz); CNT, August 10, 17, 1936 ( Puente de Arganda, Belvis del Jarama, Paracuellos de Jarama, Cobena, Villas Viejas), September 1, 19, 1936 ( Navilucillos, Utiel), October 7-9, 1936 (collectives in the central region and Mestanza and Hellin), June 19, 1937 ( Alcalá de Henares); CNT, Paris, November 5, 12, 1938 ( Madrid, García), January 7, 28, 1949 ( Hijar, Caspe, Angfies, Fraga, Torrente de Cinca, Utrillas, Pefialba, Farlete, Lécera, Aznara, La Fresnada, Mas de las Matas, Alarcón, Maella), December 25, 1949 ( Bot), January 29, 1950 ( Cerviá); CNT, Toulouse, November 23, 1946 ( Tivisa), September 6, 1947 (Hospitalet de Llobregat), December 17, 1950 ( Villas Viejas); Colectivistno, August 15, 1937 ( Infantes), September 15, 1937 ( Iniesta), October 15, 1937 ( Castuera, Valdepeñas), December 15, 1937 ( Ibi), January-February, 1938 ( Marchamalo), March 15, 1936 ( Manises), May 1, 1936 (Los Estados de Santo Tomé), June 1, 1938 (Venta del Charco), August 1, 1938 ( Rafelguaraf), September 1, 1938 ( Villarubia de Santiago), December 1, 1938 ( Marchal); La Correspondencia de Valencia, October 19, 1937 ( Castuera); Cultura Proletaria, October 2, 1937 ( Peñarroya), January 8, 29, 1938 ( Perales de Tajuña, Hospitalet de Llobregat), April 23, 1938 ( Valencia province), October 21, 28, November 4, 11, 1939 ( Calanda), February 7, 21, 1948 ( Farlete, Binéfar, Altamira, Fraga, Alcoriza, Monzón, Híjar, Alcañiz, Caspe), January 28, 1950 ( Ballobar); Cultara y Acción, August 6, 1937 ( Binéfar), May 1, 1937 ( Alcafiiz) Documentos Históricos de España, December, 1938 ( Liria); Fragua Social, June 17, 1937 ( Utiel), August 28, 1937 ( Cullera), December 2, 1937 ( Gramanet del Besós ), February 26, 1938 ( Sueca); Juventud Libre, October 31, 1936 ( Utiel); Le Libertaire, July 23, 1948 (the Levante zone); Mujeres Libres, July, 1937, ( Calanda Cabeza Herrera del Castillo y Siruela); Nosotros, February 19, 1937 ( Simat de Valldigna), June 24, 1937 ( Benaguacil), December 1, 1937 ( Madrid); La Nouvelle Espagne Antifasciste, November 25, 1937 ( Balsareny); Orientaciones Nuevas, February 6, 1937 ( Montmeló); La Révolution Prolétarienne, September 10, 1937 ( Segorbe); Solidaridad Obrera, August 14, 1936 ( Bujaraloz), October 6, 1936 ( La Figuera), November 17, 19, 22, 28, 1936 ( Valjunquera, Tarrassa, Premiá de Dalt, Martorell), December 5, 11, 19, 27, 1936 ( Serdanyola-Ripollet, Villanueva y Geltrú, Sadurni de Noya, Rubi), January 20, 1937 ( Amposta), June 26, 30, 1937 ( Olicte, Plá de Cabra), November 10, 1937 ( Lérida), December 25, 1937 ( Caravaca), December 10, 1938 ( Vilaboi); Solidaridad Olvera, Paris, February 10, 1951 ( Tamarite de Litera); Tierra y Libertad, August 27, 1936 ( Maella), January 16, 1937 ( Carcagente, Vallforguna de Balaguer, Pina de Ebro, Palafrugall), February 13, 1937 ( Llivia); Umanità Nova, January 8, 1950 ( Triana); Umbral, July 24, 1937 ( Amposta); Vida, as given in Solidaridad Obrera, October 22, 1937 ( Beniopa, Oliva, Teresa, Tabernes de Valldigna, Benifairó, Simat). For additional data on rural collectives, see Timón, July 1939 (article by Agustín Souchy); Borkenau, The Spanish Cockpit, pp. 148-51; Gaston Leval, Le Communisme, pp. 60-6; Peirats, La CNT en la revolución española, pp. 302-26, 331-53; Agustin Souchy, Entre los campesinos de Aragón. El comunismo libertario en las comarcas liberadas; Collectivisations. L'oeuvre constructive de la revolution espagnole; also materials given in n. 15, p. 61, below.

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