Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills

By John O. Greene; Brant R. Burleson | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 16
FRIENDSHIP INTERACTION SKILLS ACROSS
THE LIFE SPAN
Wendy Samter
Bryant College, Smithfield, Rhode Island

By the early part of the second year of life, children begin to direct markedly social behaviors toward one another (Brownell & Carriger, 1990; Ross & Lollis, 1987). These behaviors soon become increasingly complex and organized. At first, a toddler might simply look and smile at a peer; next he or she might look, smile, vocalize, and wave a toy, all at the same time. Relatively quickly, such actions are combined to form complex routines that contain all of the basic features of adult interaction. By age two-and-a-half, children can signal interest in one another, exchange roles, sustain a common focus in play, and make repeated efforts to gain each other's attention (Haslett, 1983; Rubin, 1980). It is through such primitive “conversation” that youngsters develop specialized patterns of interaction leading to their earliest friendships. By age 4, children actually begin to use the word friend to distinguish between familiar and nonfamiliar peers (Hartup, 1983).

Over the next several decades, the time individuals spend with their friends will wax and wane depending on a variety of factors including age, gender, marital status, and work. What it means to be a friend—and the specific functions this relationship serves in people's lives—will change as well. What remains constant across the life span, however, is the significance of friendship to one's physical and emotional wellbeing. Studies show that children who lack friends experience a variety of concurrent and long-term adjustment problems. These problems include academic failure, truancy, school dropout, drug and alcohol abuse, antisocial conduct, juvenile delinquency, and suicidal ideation (for a review, see Ladd, 1999). Adults suffer similarly adverse outcomes when their needs for affiliation are not met. A lack of friendship in adulthood has been found to predict morbidity, depression, anxiety, and fatigue (for a review, see Fehr, 1996). In short, Bette Midler was right: “You've got to have friends. ”

The relationship between communication and friendship has been examined in a variety of ways. Researchers have, for example, identified broad behavioral categories that distinguish children who have friends from those who do not (e.g., Parker & Asher, 1993a, 1993b); they have examined the content or themes of conversations

-637-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 1032

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.