Impacts of Cross-Cultural Mass
Media In Iceland, Northern
Minnesota, and Francophone
Canada in Retrospect
David E. Payne
Sam Houston State University
This chapter is an overview with the perspective of time. It lacks some of the sharp detail of intense contemporary involvement and puts broad ideas in perspective, and, it is hoped, adds the richness and appreciation that comes with a little distance.
This chapter summarizes research done 15 or more years ago, and makes a few observations that are tempered by time. Because it summarizes dozens of variables and several papers, detailed exposition of the individual variables and their reliability and validity is not included in this chapter. The information for each variable available in the original reports.
The following is a summary from data gathered in three settings: Iceland, Northern Minnesota, and Quebec. This chapter draws extensively from the original studies (Broddason, 1970; Dunn & Josepsson, 1972; Payne, 1978a, 1978b; Payne Caron, 1982, 1983; Payne & Peake, 1977) and does not give detailed reference to them in each paragraph.
Icelandic data that were analyzed came from two sources. The first source was a study initially conducted by Thorbjorn Broddason with preliminary results made available by the University of Iceland Press in 1970. The second source was a study by Thomas Dunn and Bragi Josepsson with partial results reported to the National