Signaling and Perception: Drawing
Inferences and Projecting Images
Some essential part of the study of mixed-motive games is necessarily empirical. This is not to say just that it is an empirical question how people do actually perform in mixedmotives games, especially games too complicated for intellectual mastery. It is a stronger statement: that the principles relevant to successful play, the strategic principles, the propositions of a normative theory, cannot be derived by purely analytical means from a priori considerations.
—Schelling, 1960, pp. 162–63
A marriage commitment is a very personal thing. It shouldn't be used to judge someone's character.
—Barbara Cozzi, manager of a retail store,
commenting on the military adultery scandals
in the spring of 1997, quoted in Goldberg, 1997
The varied contributions to this volume make clear that political psychology is a they rather than an it: There are many kinds of political psychology, proceeding from different assumptions and employing different approaches. Nevertheless, most forms share five distinguishing characteristics.
First is the belief that to understand human behavior, we have to understand how people think, interpret their environments, and reach decisions. Simple stimulus—response models rarely will do. To turn to international politics, theories that stress the importance of the state's external environment, although extremely useful for some purposes, leave many central questions unanswered. To understand international behavior, we need